Small reviews of (I think) all incremental games I've ever played on Android
I don't know if this will be useful to anyone. So I write a line or two about every game I play, and decided to find all the incremental in my game journal and post them here. It starts with the latest games I've played and I think goes back to several years back. One thing I've realized is I have such a love-hate-hate relationship with this genre since I think I've hated 90% of the games and 100% of myself after each incremental phase. I usually angrily stop playing them for a while and restart them again, so this is more or less a journal of addiction, I suppose. THE BEST GAMES I'VE PLAYED ARE THESE (no order):
Honorable Mention: Eggs, Inc The rest: more or less hated it Additional comment if you decide to scan through it, I complain a lot, so it is perfectly reasonable and normal to think, "why the fuck are you even playing these games, idiot??". ------ Time Idle RPG This game was confusing. It tells me the game's resources is time, where you get 1 of it every second, but that's not really something as unique as I assumed. It would have been cool if time as resources meant you used it to deal with something related to time. Maybe time travel? Maybe slowing and speeding time? Instead time as resource buys you stuff like a library. And then you buy a camp or something. Honestly, I wasn't really feeling it. 2 Path of Idling The biggest cardinal sin for me when it comes to incremental is when a game has a lot of features and it just completely throws them all at you instantly. The joy of a great incremental is how things slowly open up and each new achievement feels progress. The game is a RPG game and these are the things that opened up for me in the first few hours. Combat which includes normal fighting, dungeon, raid, boss, PVP (locked, but it just needs an ascend, which I haven't done) Skills Hero upgrades which include Passive (strength, defence, stamina, intelligence), Train, and a huge Tree Town which you can buy workers who get you various things like gold, orbs, knowledge, etc. You can upgrade stuff here. Quest that also includes Perks and Skill quests. Gear which 5 equipment slots, plus craft plus trade plus smelt Also gear for your Pet, which is also another tab! Now, here is the thing. Because I have all of this pretty much instantly, I don't really know which ones are helping me go past a well. How is adding 10 points in strength helping me? Should I have added five in strength instead and five in defence? I have already bought 20 or so upgrades in the Tree, but I have no idea if I am made the optimal choice. There is no real excitement with getting new gear. And so on. The dev has added a lot of features, now it's time to rework the game, and have the features take their time. 2 Idle Slayer The game is like a super simple platformer. Your character is running and any enemy it hits, it automatically slays it. There is no HP, and all enemies die in one shot. Your only active play is jumping occasionally to grab coins or hit the flying enemies. Also, you have a run skill that has a cool down. With the coins, we get new weapons that give us more coins. Enemies give us souls which is used for the prestige system that provides us with an interesting skill tree which provides a lot of choices on the path you want to do in terms of upgrades. So far excellent, however, the game has an extremely serious issue of pacing. The game initially progresses so fast that in the first hour or so, you get almost all the weapons aside from the last two, which then grinds down to a snail pace. You can upgrade your past weapons, but they never really get into play again. Reaching high levels of past weapons sometimes gave me upgrades of that weapon of 10,000% but they still did nothing to my overall coin per second. I think the pacing needs to be fully reworked. It would have been nice to get new weapons after certain prestige cycles, so that every new weapon feels like we have passed a significant wall. The best part of an incremental game for me is to face a wall, and when I finally break it, I feel powerful again for a while. This game feels like this though, powerful powerful powerful powerful WALL........break it....WALL. And so on. I'm still playing it as I want to get some of the skills, but I feel like it could have been so much better. 4 Exponential Idle A very back to the foundation kind of incremental. The premise is that you are a student and working on a formula. There is a neat story where as you progress in the game, your character progresses through university. Each upgrade gives you more and more automation until I reached a stage where I would check back once every 2 or 3 days, click a 2nd layer prestige reset, and close it. Meaning the game was something like 5 seconds of game player every 2 days. I just opened it for this review and realized I had reached the end game. The story wraps up and it tells me "You can take a rest. Travel a bit. Go outside!" NO, DON'T TELL ME WHAT TO DO GAME. 3 Factoid Factoid & Spark should have the same review as they are almost the same game with only small differences. The games are the most basic kind of incremental, where you buy something with resources, until you get the next thing which gives you more of the resources. Both give you upgrades to speed things up, and finally prestige and it's own prestige upgrades. That's it. It's nice little change of pace from all the recent incremental that sometimes do too much, but obviously due to the very simple nature of it, it does eventually feel pointless, specially after you more or less open up everything and the prestige upgrades just keep repeating. 3 Spark Factoid & Spark should have the same review as they are almost the same game with only small differences. The games are the most basic kind of incremental, where you buy something with resources, until you get the next thing which gives you more of the resources. Both give you upgrades to speed things up, and finally prestige and it's own prestige upgrades. That's it. It's nice little change of pace from all the recent incremental that sometimes do too much, but obviously due to the very simple nature of it, it does eventually feel pointless, specially after you more or less open up everything and the prestige upgrades just keep repeating. 3 Antimatter Dimensions Easily top 5 incremental on mobile. Does everything perfectly. You progress nicely, and when new features open it, not only is it rewarding but more importantly, it keeps adding new dimensions (lol) to the game. I'd at the end game as I write this, and I realize that there was no point in the game where it felt stale. Each new prestige layer made the game feel fresh and almost like a new incremental game. 5 Melvor Idle It seems this game was mainly aimed at Runescape players, which is probably why it didn't click for me. It also run extremely slow on my phone which also played a part in me not really getting into. 2 A Girl Adrift The animation is really pretty and is a nice change of pace for incrementals, but I didn't really like the too much active play. Really had to keep going back and forth to different areas to do the fishing which got too repetitive for me. You travel to different areas of the map to catch fish, which you get points and then you upgrade stuff, but I didn't really find any real excitement about the upgrades because I kept having to go back to previous areas to fish similar creatures. 3 Archer: Danger Phone I'm really annoyed how terrible of a game this was. Two things I like, the TV show "Archer" and incremental games, and it's done in the most lazy manner. The game is the worst aspect of idle games where it's just a straight path of clicking the next upgrade with absolutely zero decision making. Every once in a while there is a mini game where Archer gets to shoot others but it's done in the most basic form of early 2000s flash games, where the animation budget is probably 3 dollars. Same static background and both enemies and Archer have just two animation frames. The absolute laziness of it is almost insulting to the player, because it feels like we aren't even worth the effort. There is an Archer story in the game which develops really fast, which is the only positive part, but no voice acting is again another evidence that the creators of the game weren't given any budget for this. 1 Home Quest This game is way too slow. You have to collect materials to build your settlement but everything takes time, so you click for a few seconds, and then you have to leave the game. Which I'm fine with, but the problem isn't the idle part of it, it's how the idle part of it combines with constant checking of the game which annoys me. I like an idle game where you forget to start the game for a day, you come up to a lot of resources, but this is a game which needs you to check back in every 30 minutes or an hour to really get anywhere. I felt that the micromanagement was getting worse as I progressed (without any actual thing to do when I am active in the game) that made me give up. 2 Idle Industry This is probably an interesting game, but I gave up because the one thing I really disliked was the amount of resources and manufacturing that very quickly opens to you. You can buy raw materials, and you can either sell these raw materials or turn them into finished goods and sell them either. And each of these has several upgrade options (increase selling price, increase production, etc). Without even really getting too deep into the game, I have around 20 raw materials and around 30 finished products. A satisfying part of this genre is to have things slow open up for you, which gives me a decent feeling of satisfaction. But the money I got would quickly open up new products, so I would just jump ahead and purchase more expensive ones, and after a while I had a lot of materials and products at zero, and was instead focusing on latter ones. 2 Masters of Madness Somewhat neat atmosphere and visuals, but too much active clicking. Click, upgrade to get more per clicks, get minions to get you some points without clicking, typical clicker, but with the added benefit of almost no idling. I like idling incrementals but clickers is a hard no from me. 1 Soda Dungeon 2 Basically similar to the first one, as far as I could tell. I did "finish" it but maybe I shouldn't have, since it really is the same thing from early on, specially once you get all the heroes and you kind of sort out which characters work best, then it's just the same. But because it was somewhat short and no real wall, it was at least easy to stick to it to the end. 2 Bacterial Takeover Played for a decent amount and was actually more interesting that I thought, given the buttload of ad incentives. You create and upgrade bacteria, attack planets, and eventually go into a blackhole to prestige. Most of the game was good, but the part that killed it for me was the prestige system. Once you prestige, planets get super easy to attack, which becomes a lot of active play. I realized that each prestige was taking me at least 30 minutes to get to where I was, and it was just meaningless clicking. It got to a point where I was putting off prestige because it seemed like it would be a hassle so I stopped. 2 LogRogue Cute graphics. The hero sort of hopping to hit the tiny monsters is cute to look at, but how long can you look at it and do nothing before you realize that it's boring? I suppose this is a game where it's just not for me. I don't like to have my phone open on a game and just watch it like a crazy person and do nothing. My rule is simple for incrementals. While the app is open, be active, if there isn't any choices to make, close the app while resources build up or whatever. I don't like it being open while I do nothing. 3 A Kittens Game Incremental games are so strange. I get in and out of the phases. I loved this for so long and so obsessively that I wanted to only play incremental games. And then, just like that, I was wondering why the fuck I was wasting my time with this. Has happened countless times before. But still probably the best incremental ever. 5 A Dark Room An incremental cult classic of sorts but I don't find it really matches the genre. There is a bit of incremental at the beginning with people huts and stuff but then its just a ascii exploring game, which wasn't interesting to me. 2 Little Healer Saw it mentioned in the Reddit incremental forum in one of the posts and thought it was a healer themed incremental which sounded neat. But it's like being a healer in a raid in World of Warcraft without any if the extras. Just a couple of bars representing your team mates and you healing them while they fight the boss. I didn't even like playing the healer in WoW so no way would I play this game. 1 Clickie Zoo Started playing for a few days until I realized there a beta released with the dev reworking the game completely from scratch and releasing it as "Idle Zoo Tycoon". So, played that instead but this seemed like a game I would enjoy anyway. 4 Idling to Rule the Gods The UI and one drawing if your character is really ugly enough to be distracting to me. The game, seemed interesting and I eventually was into it, but seems like a game that has been constantly being updated, which is not always a good thing, because features are obviously updated regularly to it, making the whole thing a bit bloaty. I guess, this is the problem with this game for me, it's too fat. Also, one main part of the game is that your character creates Shadow Clones up to a maximum limit. Which is fine except the clones can't be made in offline mode. This might not be a big deal in its original web browser game but that doesn't work as well in a mobile format. 2 Realm Grinder This is one of the really popular incremental and it's fanbase seems to love it for it's depth, but to be honest, I don't play these games for the depth, I play it for the simple dopamine rush of doing the same thing over and over again. It relaxes. Although, I didn't even get to the depth part because I dislike games where it rushes in the beginning. I constantly bought buildings, got spells, and got upgrades without even looking at the description. Apparently, later on, we can get complicated race upgades, which seems not what I'm looking for in such a genre. 2 Spaceplan A short (!!) incremental with an actual story (!!!). That's two cool points for it but unfortunately, the game mechanics of increment genre isn't so good. It's a space game with nice visuals and a great ending (cool music set to cool graphics) but the game itself wasn't really that fun. This same exact game would have been better in a different genre (maybe something like "Out There"?) 3 Zombidle Felt like idle games again and this is the kind of examples that kept me away. Too much clicking and seems like advancement will start to get irritating since it relies on IAPs 2 Eggs, Inc While I was playing it, Eggs, Inc was probably my favorite Android game I had ever played. But like most incremental games, there comes a moment when I suddenly stop and think, what am I doing? Because there is something fascinating about Incrementals. Their addictiveness is in a way the whole point. An incremental is less of a game and more an act of electronic addictiveness. What's the point? Eggs, Inc is a very well made and fun incremental but even the best in its genre is still pointless. 4 Castle Clicker Supposedly a mix of incremental and city building but didn't really find out since the clickings were way to much. I know this is supposed to be the genre but I like the incremental part more than the tapping part. This seemed to be a good way to hurt your fingers. 2 Endless Era This RPG clicker game is like other such games but with horrible GUI and animations. Tap tap tap. It's my fault for downloading such games. Why would I ever think this would be fun??? 1 Idle Quote An incremental game with a unique twist. This time we get to make up quotes! The first negative about the game and this irritates me a lot is most of the quotes are fake. A quick search on Google and this proves it. Quotes are generally attributed to Buddha or Ghandi or shit like that and it's usually fake like most quotes on the internet. This kills the major possible advantage of the game because I thought coming up with arbitrary words would at least give me some quotes to learn. Aside from the this, the game isn't fun either because it slows down very quickly meaning you combine words very slowly at a certain stage of the game and then it becomes a boring grind. 2 Monster Miser An incremental game with almost no graphics. We just see character portraits of monsters which we buy and then upgrade until we buy the next monster. Eventually we prestige which gives us multipliers. The only game choice is choosing between two monsters with each new monster with unique benefits. Annoyingly there is a max limit which I wish didn't exist because I wanted to prestige so much that I would be over powerful in upgrading like that "Idle Oil Tycoon". Still, pointless but reasonably fun. 3 Pocket Politics An incremental take on politics sounds fun but it's so generic that it could have been about anything. A Capitalist idle game or a cooking idle game, it wouldn't matter. IAP was also the usual shitty kind. 1 Time Clickers A shooter incremental sounds like a cool twist but it's not a FPS like I imagined it would be. I'm just stuck in a room and I was shooting blocks. Upgrades didn't give me any enjoyment since I was shooting fucking blocks. 1 Tap Tap Fish - Abyssrium I thought this was going to be relaxing incremental but the ridiculous and generic IAPs and all the social integeration spoil it. Too much time is spent in them asking you to buy or share or tweet or post or give them a blowjob. And there is nothing relaxing about that. 2 Cartoon 999 Incremental game about comic book writers, but not the marvel DC kind, it seemed to be the webcomic one and I think it's a Korean developer so all the characters and injokes made no sense to me. The whole thing was just targeted to a very specific audience. 2 Dungeon Manager Incremental games need to be simple but this is beyond simple, it's just upgrade a fighter to level 5, go to next dungeon character, do the same, and just continue without any of the delicious balancing of upgrades like other idle games. 2 Final Fortress Incremental games are already pointless but when it's super heavy on IAP than its also annoying, but when it always has bugs that doesn't register my offline earnings, then it just needs a uninstall in its face. The zombie skin was also crappy. 1 Mana Maker Here is how I know this clicker isn't very good. It doesn't make me hate all clickers and my life and mobile gaming in general for being so addictive and pointless. So fail, sorry. 2 Infinity Dungeon The usual incremental RPG that I should probably never play again. Starts simple enough and then gets more or a chore as you play. 1 Another incremental game which I had promised myself not to play anymore because they are so pointless and repetitive and endless. Well, this wasn't infinite and had a goal at 999 level so I thought it was good but while the humor was cute, the game did become very repetitive. Every 10 levels the slimes changed but after every 100 levels the whole thing restarted and while the monsters got stronger, I seemed to get even stronger. So the game became easier as I progressed and there was no more challenge. By level 800, I gave up. 2 Tap Dungeon RPG Okay, I'm running out of ways to complain about those incremental RPG games that all have similar problems. It starts off reasonably fast and fun but soon it seems like I am in a data entry job. Doing the same thing over and over again with little changes. 1 Dungeon 999 F: Secret of Slime Dungeon Another incremental game which I had promised myself not to play anymore because they are so pointless and repetitive and endless. Well, this wasn't infinite and had a goal at 999 level so I thought it was good but while the humor was cute, the game did become very repetitive. Every 10 levels the slimes changed but after every 100 levels the whole thing restarted and while the monsters got stronger, I seemed to get even stronger. So the game became easier as I progressed and there was no more challenge. By level 800, I gave up. 2 Tap Dungeon RPG Okay, I'm running out of ways to complain about those incremental RPG games that all have similar problems. It starts off reasonably fast and fun but soon it seems like I am in a data entry job. Doing the same thing over and over again with little changes. 1 Tower of Hero You start on the first floor of the tower and keep fighting your way up by summoning your heroes (by clicking) and recruiting other fighters, get upgrades, level up, and then, ugh, here is the typical incremental RPG part, restart, get items, and do it ALL over again. There is something fun about restarting and getting slowly stronger each time but it also feels so pointless after a while. Such a pointless genre now that I have played a billion of such titles, heh. 3 Pageboy Yet another incremental RPG which I have no idea why I downloaded because I'm sick of the genre. I played a pageboy to a knight who does the fighting while I collect the lot. I collect the loot, buy stuff for the knight, and eventually I restart to do the same thing again and get better items but this game I didn't even RESTART! Because fuck it! Fuck it! 2 Idle Warriors The story is cute. Human population is regressing while monster population is on the rise. So the humans start enslaving monsters to mine for them! The brave warriors beat the crap out of monsters, kidnap the bosses, and enslave them. The animation of monsters slaving away while speech balloons above them talk about their wife and children is funny. But the game itself is another RPG incremental which I should start staying away from. These games are like a chore for me nowadays because I'm doing the same crap again and again. The blame is probably on me because it seems like a reasonably solid game. But hey, fuck it, I PERSONALLY didn't enjoy it. 2 Tap! Tap! Faraway! Any game that is remotely like Tap Titan scares me. They are addictive at first and very fast moving but after every restart gets more and more annoying. It soon turns into a time eating activity with the player having to redo the initial levels to get relics to get better items to progress further to restart to get relics to and so on until the player realizes how much time he is putting in the game for a repetitive activity. 2 Auto RPG Now that is a title the game developers didn't spend too much time on. RPG battles are automatic but I can help out by clicking like a mad man. I started with one hero but would get additional members in my party as the story progressed. Party members receive skills as as they level up and while all the skill usage is automatic, it did give me a sense of progression which is extremely important in a RPG and which I think is usually lacking in incremental games. It usually starts feeling useless but in this game at least there are new maps, new members, and an actual end sight! There is an infinity stage once the last boss is defeated but I am glad the infinity stage happens AFTER the end and it's not the game itself. 4 Merchant Hire a hero and send on to battle. The battles is done automatically and takes time, starts with something short like 10 seconds with each battle taking longer. The loot is raw materials which can be used to craft equipment which also takes real life time with better items taking longer. The crafted items can either be sold or equipped to the hero to make him be able to fight stronger monsters. I was worried I would hate the longer crafting and fighting times because I hate games which I have to watch for a task to finish but even though the durations for longer, I had more to do. However, I don't know what would have happened in the end game because I gave up on it. New maps were exactly like the first map just with different heroes but the progression was similar in each level which felt that I was doing the exact same thing all over again but with longer task times. 2 Idle Oil Tycoon This is the best idle game I played. It's graphics aren't just minor, they are none existent. It's just numbers, so basic that my sister thought I was on a stock market app. It's such a simple concept. Invest, get oil, upgrade then like other idlers restart to get a bonus and do the full thing all over again. When I finished the game, I played the unlimited mode which I played until the unlimited mode couldn't handle the numbers anymore. 5 Soda Dungeon This kind-of Idle Dungeon was great. I started with weak ass fighters who would fight on my behalf while I collected the loot. I then got to use the lot to upgrade the sofa bar to recruit more adventurers. Not sure why it was a sofa bar. Maybe they wanted to make it a family game and not have alcohol? Sounds weird but the sofa element in a RPG game sounds weirder. The game only hit a brick for me when, like most other incremental games, there is no real closure. Once I thought I bet the big bad guy, it just goes on, harder but similar enough with no end in sight. Eventually, we have to stop playing right, but it always feels a bit like a let down when I don't feel like I have finished the game. 4 10 Billion Wives Kept Man Life The two games from this company, 10 Billion Wives and Kept Man Life, have similar strengths and weaknesses. I liked the silly premises from both. In 10BM, I had to get married as much as I could, using the loves I collect to marry more expensive wives! In KML, I'm a boyfriend who doesn't work and I have to please my career gf so she would take care of me. Both start reasonably fast and I was willing to grind through difficult parts but the end game is like a brick wall. Passing through it to get all the achievements is pretty much impossible unless one puts in way too many hours. And it's a shame because I really wanted to get all the achievements to see all the tiny little extra stuff. 3 Adventure Capitalist One of the better incremental games, but now that I am out of the short lived incremental fan phase, I realized how dumb the genre is. Tap, tap, tap, upgrade, do this a million times, reset, and do it all over again like a moron. The game does deserve credits for me acting like a moron and playing it for so long but I also cheated and got free cash and then if occupying became even more pointless. 3 The Monolith A combination of an incremental and a civilization building game seemed like an excellent idea and in some ways, it was, specially how we get to upgrade through the ages from cavemen to futuristic. But no offline feature means that the resets aren't enticing. 2 USSR Simulator An incremental game that has a great theme (USSR!) but absolutely horrible to enjoy, even though I did stick to it. After a certain upgrades, the game just turned into me popping in the game, clicking an upgrade and then forgetting about the game for a few days. 2 RPG Clicker They should call these games tappers not clickers. We are not clicking anything on a touchscreen device. Anyway, tap tap tap level up buy weapons tap tap and uninstall. 1 Logging Quest Logging Quest 2 [Review is for the original and its sequel] There is not much of a difference between the game. I actually played them both at the same time because the actual game is offline. You choose your hero, send them to a dungeon, and then come back to the game after a while to see how well they did. I thought an offline RPG like this might be interesting but then, if you don't really play a game, how much fun can it be? 1 Another pointless incremental. I was in an incremental phase and got so many incremental games that I know realize were absolutely pointless. Hit a tree, buy upgrades, get a new hero, and continue hitting a tree. Not much offline it seems which is what I like about incrementals. 1 Galaxy Clicker A space incremental that should have been a lot of fun. You get to upgrade your spaceship and buy new ones and explorer new planets. But first of all, the interface is so ugly that it makes playing the game less enjoyable. And a lot of things I didn't really get no matter how much I would play like the full exploring planets. The spaceships were nice, so it could have been fun. 2 Megatramp A pretty pointless incremental kind of game. You are a tramp and then you can collect money to buy upgrades to make more money, with no strategy needed, nor any effort needs to be made to hurt your brain cells. 1 Inflation RPG It supposed to be some kind of incremental RPG, I think, which has you resetting and getting more powerful and then fighting monsters to get insane levels. It is very unique but I couldn't get into it. 2 Widget RPG Are you fucking with me? This is button bashing rpg in the most extreme manner. You get a widget, so you don't even have to open the game and distract yourself from the button bushing. Just click the button and the game plays behind the scenes and gets you experience, loot, and kills. It's a ridiculous idea that is fun for a few minutes to see what they come up with but there is only so much button bashing you can do. 2 Capitalist Tycoon I downloaded this game because I was in an incremental/idle game phase and really enjoyed AdVenture Capitalist. But this game is nothing like that. On the surface, it seems similar, buy small investments, make money, buy bigger investments, and so on. But with this game, there is no offline mode, and you keep having to wake up managers, AND the goal is to see how much you make in one year. Bah. I prefer the incremental approach which makes you build and build and build, not try to rush it in just a year. 2 Clicking Bad An incremental clicking game that is themed after Breaking Bad. It is a fun idea it's a very simple game with little to do aside from the obvious of upgrading and upgrading. The only twist might be to balance out making lots of money selling drugs and not attracting the law but even that is only a small challenge at the start. Eventually, you will get enough upgrades to bring the law risk so down that it makes no impact on the game play. 2 Zombie Tapper A super basic incremental clicker game with a zombie team. Click click click to eat brains, use brains (?) to buy zombies to do the brain eating for you and then buy upgrades for your zombies, and buy new zombies and it all feels very pointless. 1 Bitcoin Billionaire I started to enjoy incremental games, but it needs to have a good offline mode, because I don’t want to just play a game where I keep tapping. But that doesn’t mean I didn’t play. I played it, and I played a lot of it, because I could reset the game (like most incremental games) and it gives you a small benefit where you could finish the full game a bit faster (it gives you bonus income). So, I kept finishing and resetting, and each time the start to finish would shorten, so I thought I would reach a stage where I could finish each start-to-finish in an instant! It didn’t happen. I got bored first. 3 Tap Titan An addictive tapping game. Just tap on the creatures, level up, get new skills, hire heroes, and then reset and to it all over again to progress further. It’s an incremental game where it depends on resets to progress, but no real offline bonus, so you have to be playing online. Which got boring, so I installed an app that does the tapping for me, which is actually a stupid way to play the game, but this isn’t an attempt to prove to anyone my intelligence. Anyway, thankfully something went wrong and my progress got deleted, WHICH WAS A GOOD THING, because the game was extremely addictive. 4 God Squad I’ve realized most incremental games are stupid. Tap on monsters to kill, collect gold, buy Roman Gods, level them up, fight other monsters, and then get bored. 1
I want to share my 2017 crypto market experience for anyone who wants to read it, I was one of the greedy guys who knew nothing about trading and still made a potential ton, then lost it all due to, well... Being greedy and knowing nothing about trading.
This does not really bother me much, but I haven't been able to stop thinking about it either, what could have been, I will try to be as brief as posible: Back in 2011-2016 I was working as a software developer freelancer, back then I lived in Venezuela, and mostly used paypal to charge clients, paypal would constantly limit my account, but I would get it back after submitting documents and a bit of begging, this was the only way I could receive payments from international clients, and basically the single point of failure in the process of delivering my work and getting paid, if paypal permanently banned me I would be completely screwed. About 2015-2016 my paypal got limited permanently, no reason stated, I thought it was really unfair as I only received payments from business in countries like the US or Canada, no sketchy money entering my account, anyway, when this happened I became incredibly stressed and depressed, all I could think was I wouldn't be able to feed my family anymore, and what would I do if an emergency happened that same day or week or however long it took me to figure out how to receive payments again through another method, all I had was held in my paypal account, so I had nothing to defend myself in the meantime. Anyway, it took me about a week of constant reading to realize I could convince a few clients to buy crypto for me, I lost about 60% out of my stream of income due to clients ditching me as they didn't want the bother of purchasing crypto just to pay a freelancer they could replace for one that was easier to work with, I used localbitcoins to sell the bitcoins I got for national currency so that I could purchase what I needed, I was not really able to stock up on some bitcoin as an investment as I spent everything I earned due to sustaining my almost the entirety of my immediate family. Fast forward to 2016 or 2017, and I start to try out purchasing bits of crypto, and trying to time the market to make a little bit more, doing this somehow I managed to convert about $100, into $400-$500 in a matter of a few months. Then hits late 2017, around august I believe, when everyone was purchasing alts like crazy even if they were scams, most people were blinded by greed, me included, it was at that point that I decided to drop work for a few weeks to see if I could make some good profit out of the state of the market, and so I took those $400 or $500, and started to daily trade with it, making 20% sometimes, 30% or 50%, as well as sometimes losing everything I had done during the day, a few of the trades I remember doing was purchasing LTC, XRP, IOTA, BCH and a few more right before they 2x or 3x in price, I was doing swing trades with the entirety of my portfolio, because I realized I could earn more that way, so if I had 5k total in crypto, I would do the swing trade with the entirety of it, and either lose $1000 or make $1000 if it moved 20% in either direction, my only real strategy was to read up on most recent trading discussions on a few social media, which was no strategy at all, I was just being reckless, I remember I could only sleep 2 hours every night because I was afraid of losing everything while being asleep, I set a bunch of alerts, was stressed, didn't want to talk to relatives nor anyone because I would feel like dying when losing 10% or 20% out of my portfolio when it grew to a certain point. Anyway, at some point I got up to $20k, or $25k, then decided to put it all in XML because I had read some discussions on it, and realized people seemed to really like it, don't remember exactly what was my entry price, but when XLM almost got up to $0.70 - $1 a few days or weeks later, my portfolio was worth $130k, and it remained that way for a whole 24 hours or so, If I remember correctly My heart was racing, I thought for sure I was going to make it $1m at some point Then, of course, everything started to crash hard... just a few days later my portfolio was worth $80k, a few days more and I was at $60k, I started to panic like any regular silly greedy guy and tried to profit off some swings only to lose more than I would profit from, months of sleepless nights later, with a lot less hair in my head, I finally decided to take it all out, at which point I had about $12k worth of crypto. I used that money to get me, my wife and my mom out of the country, I was also lucky to have dual citizenship thanks to my mom having been born in another country, so I could move to a first world developed european country instead of another struggling country in south america, I was able to set up proper bank accounts so that I could find good clients and make it easier for them to pay me my dues and still use crypto for those that were willing, and of course, I took my work back as a freelancer, although by this point my previous clients had found other people to work with. In the end things turned great, I suppose, I would not have been able to save up those same $12k while working as a freelancer back in Venezuela, not even close, that whole experience got me out of that awful country and way of life, still, I can't stop thinking that if I at least had gotten out at $80k, or even $60k, I would have a down payment on a decent house, were, even 1/3 of the price of it, easily... instead, I blew through it while moving to the new country and paying a year worth of rent plus a couple of work laptops for both me and my wife. This part of my life will always be a crazy memory to keep, and share with future friends I may make, so I felt like sharing it here as I have been watching the sub for a while, though I just lurk.
12.8 has to be the worst update ive seen in my life of playing video games (Bethesda doesnt count)
now before you read any of this i like tarkov i played it back probably in 2018 i would like to say i owned the standard and EOD version of the game and in no way do i want to stop playing this game but seriously the shit thats happened this update is unacceptable. raid:1 reserve. spawn in run for 20 seconds get shot by another squad in the back of the head. gets off for the night cause im tired of restarting my game every other raid cause my friends wont get my invite or the lobby is bugged or the NEXT button on the end raid screen doesnt work. next day. bitcoins are now bugged where if you take them before having all 3 it will reset the counter. wow thats fucking stupid. learning how stupid the star rounds are as well as the shrapnel 10 rounds being able to kill you if they hit you once in the arms or legs. wow thats stupid. the star rounds are now removed i guess thats a plus reserve spawns got "fixed" with 12.8 spawn into a reserve raid and one of my squad mates spawn with another squad and gets immediately gunned down 10 seconds into the raid. RAID 3 JUST HAPPENED: watched my friend put 10 rounds into Gluhar and Gluhar drop shotted him through a wall with his ash 12 with 1 round tapped him with level 5 armor on. next raid we spawn in and 2 minutes in my entire squad gets "server connection lost: at the same time. anybody and i mean anybody that dares defend 12.8s launch has fucking stalkhome syndrome and i swear if any of you guys say. "its only a beta" i will tell you that 12.8 was from what i heard supposed to come out late AUGUST. if not then it still got delayed by another 2 weeks cause of internet issues and to iron out bugs and i have to wonder with all that time what the actual hell happened. this game costs about 40-140USD that is double of a AAA game and i can safely say half of the tarkov community owns EOD as well as some people who own MULTIPLE accounts that are EOD streamers mainly but the price shouldnt mean anything its just a joke where me and my friends just laugh and say "140 dollars" when shit like this happens.
MW Wyco Wednesday Inventory Update! First 20 Orders Get a Free Syringe or Calendar Raffle Entry! Restocked: GT, B+, PE6, Jedi Mind Fuck, White Teacher, Rusty Whyte, AA+, Blue Meanie NEW: Purple Mystic! Card Payments Back Up and Running on www.MillyWyco.com
www.millywyco.com Stickers=12mL Syringes MillyWyco is NOT Willy Myco :) (see below) Any mention of cultivation or anything unrelated to microscopy will not receive a response and orders will be cancelled. This includes DM's, PM's, e-mails, notes with your transaction, feedback of any kind, and thoughts. Don't even think about it! (I'm a mind reader) Heyooo!! This past week was a little rough not being able to accept card payments, but thanks to Square, that's all resolved! You can continue to pay by card on the site just as before. If anyone placed an order this past week and wasn't sure how to complete your purchase with an app, please let me know and I'll take care of you :) I'm running just a bit short on time (big surprise) for this post, but I want to get inventory finalized by 5:00 for you early birds. I'll be making a separate post on the sub tonight with some things to look forward to and a small flash giveaway, so stick with me! So far, the calendar raffle has been going great, and a lot of you are pretty excited about! This is a way to make things more fun and exciting, and have a chance to win some pretty neat stuff EVERY DAY! Check out the Calendar Raffle post on the MW subreddit for details, how to enter, and what's up for grabs! DO SOMETHING KIND FOR A COMPLETE STRANGER TODAY! Not because you think it will come back to reward you later, or because you get the warm and fuzzies...though both are probably true. Do it because you want to make a change in someone's life and make this world a better place. Do it out of the genuine kindness of your heart, even if it goes unnoticed. The smallest gestures could mean a WORLD of difference...you just don't know it yet ;) I LOVE YOU ALL!!! Seriously...ya'll are THE BEST! <3 Also, when I say "Priority Mail", this is referring to USPS Priority Mail vs. the standard "First Class" mail. All of my orders get my absolute highest priority care and attention, regardless of shipping method. USPS Priority Mail costs me $8, while I only pass on $5 of that to your order...it does not benefit me in any way if you choose this option, I just know those orders need to get to you ASAP, so I make sure to get all of these out on Thursday, with as many standard shipping orders as well. Sometimes it is not humanly possible to get every order from Wednesday out on Thursday, and some ship Friday morning. Thank you for your patience and continued support!! The first 20 orders placed after this post (Order #14779-14798) will receive an additional free syringe with their order! ALSO...in addition to the first 20 promo, any order number ending in 1, 0 or 2 on 10/21 only will also get a free syringe! If you are in the first 20, and your order number ends in 1, 0, or 2, you get both! If your order number ends in 21 (#14821, 14921, etc.) the week of 10/21 only, I will be in contact to arrange your special gift. Either you can have a double order (you ordered 5, I'll ask which other 5 you'd like...if you ordered 10, you'll get 20, etc), or you can choose to make that order free, (refunded if already paid) totally up to you! This week, I have restocked a few favorites, including Golden Teacher, B+, PE6, Albino A+, KSSS, Blue Meanie, White Teacher, Jedi Mind Fuck, Rusty Whyte, and a few others! The new variety this week is one I haven't had in over a year, and I am oh so proud to bring back Purple Mystic! I have several new varieties undergoing quality testing now, and should be ready by the end of the month! Thank you so much to everyone who has subscribed to a subscription box! Each and every month, these boxes will get better and better :) Newsletters will go out on the first of each month, regardless of when your plan is set to renew. In these newsletters will also be the winner of the random equipment raffle for MASTER PLAN members! This could be a sterilization wand, dehydrator, magnetic stir plate, or other super duper helpful tools in the hobby. Last month, 3 lucky Master Box subscribers received a pressure cooker, UV-C light sterilization wand, and a dehydrator! PLEASE USE COUPON CODES if ordering on the site for discounts!! Please see below: 2PACK - $20 for two cubensis syringes 5PACK - Classic and most popular $30 dealio for 5 cubensis varieties. Also works in multiples of 5 as well, so if you need 15 syringes, this code will be good for 3- 5 packs, and you only need to place one order. NEEDMORE - 5 cubensis varieties for $30 plus 1 exotic add-on for $10...total $40 NEEDMORE2 - 5 cubensis varieties for $30 plus 2 exotic add-ons for $20...total $50 NEEDMORE3 - 5 cubensis varieties for $30 plus 3 exotic add-ons for $30...total $60 ...and so on. Currently, this is setup for up to 5 exotic add-ons. If you have an order that does not meet these codes, such as adding on more than 5 exotics, getting 7 cubensis varieties, etc. please send me a message and I will build you a coupon code to match your order in a timely manner. Shipping not available to ID, GA, or CA (yes, really) Spore syringes are for microscopy use only Any reference to cultivation will exclude you from placing an order and we may never speak again. I want to talk to you. Don't do it! There are no exceptions to these rules. You have been warned. PAYMENT METHODS ACCEPTED: Major Credit/Debit cards, Zelle, Cash App, Venmo, Google Pay, Apple Pay, Bitcoin and Amazon gift cards PayPal is NOT available to me at this time. Also, I am the fee master! I get charged fees left and right that I don't pass on to you from shipping and third party payments. If you'd like to throw me a tip, however much it may be, I'd love you forever and it really does make a difference! These types of people have allowed me to share with some who are less fortunate. On the other hand, if times are tough for you right now, let's talk about it! ALL PRICES INCLUDE USPS SHIPPING WITH TRACKING!! I COVER ALL STANDARD SHIPPING COSTS. Please add an additional $5 to any order if you prefer USPS Priority Mail shipping. 1 syringe for $15 2 syringes for $20 5 syringes for $30 Golden Teacher (LIMITED TO 2 PER ORDER!) Acadian Coast Ajax Alacabenzi Albino A+ Amazonian B+ (Be Positive) Blue Meanie Burma Columbian Rust Corumba Brazil Costa Rican Daddy Long Legs Dancing Tiger Ecuadorian Fiji Golden Mammoth Golden Teacher Huautla Jedi Mind Fuck Koh Samui Super Strain (KSSS) Lake Toba (Sumatra, Indonesia) Lizard King Mazatapec McKennaii Mexican NorMel PES Amazon PES Hawaiian Puerto Rican Purple Mystic Rusty Whyte Taman Negara Tasmanian White Teacher Wollongong Z-Strain THE FOLLOWING EXOTICS ARE NOT PART OF THE 5/$30 MIX-n-MATCH DEALIO, but can be added to the 5/$30 pack for $10 as an add-on, or $15 each by themselves. These are NOT cubensis, and NOT recommended for beginners. USE COUPON CODE "NEEDMORE" on the site to add ONE EXOTIC on to a 5 pack. Want 2 Exotics? Use code NEEDMORE2 or NEEDMORE3 for 3, etc. Currently this is setup to add a maximum of 5 exotics....if you need more, please message me and I'll create a unique coupon code to enter for your order :) ****Penis Envy #6 (PE6)***\* This actually IS a cubensis variety, but added to exotics list due to rarity and popularity. NOT part of the pick 5. ****Psilocybe Allenii***\* ****Psilocybe Azurescens***\* ****Psilocybe Cyanescens***\* ****Psilocybe Mexicana Galindoi***\* ****Psilocybe Ovoideocystidiata***\* ****Psilocybe Serbica***\* ****Psilocybe Subaeruginosa***\* ****Panaeolus Bisporus***\* ****Panaeolus Cyanescens (Australia)***\* All syringes are 12cc/mL and come capped with a sterile tip cap, and also include an 18ga 1.5" sterile needle and alcohol pads. Syringes are made in a lab grade environment and the utmost care and attention is the highest priority to be sure they are sterile. Anything exposed to an open air environment is subject to contamination, but I take every precaution possible to minimize this risk. I cannot "guarantee" they are 100% sterile, but I can guarantee that if you have an issue, I will make it right. I really do love to help, and if something happens, I'd like to know about it so I can fix the issue instead of you getting frustrated or giving up! To ensure equal quantity of spores in each syringe, and for adequate suspension of the spores in the solution, I use a magnetic stir plate. Very often, this does such a good job of breaking up clumps of spores that it will appear to be sparse. THIS IS NOT AN ISSUE! There are still a TON of spores in each syringe, even if you can't see them individually (though most of my syringes appear to have a very good amount of visible spores...even with my horrible eyesight!). You can compare and contrast to see the blackish/purple tint to ensure every syringe is packed with spores. If a spore clump forms during transportation, simply give it a good flick with your finger and vigorously shake to break it up or free it from clinging to the wall of the syringe before examining. Syringes ship in individual bags clearly labeled as to specific variety and born on date, bubble wrapped and shipped through USPS tracked shipping (discreet) within 24 hours of payment. I send tracking info soon after payment and give updates along the (super quick) way. Any messages referring to spores being used for anything other than microscopy use will be ignored. Don't do it. THANK YOU ALL so much again for your continued support!! I appreciate it more than you know! MUSH LOVE P.S. In no way am I trying to be an impostor. I AM NOT WILLY MYCO. I chose this u/ a while back as sort of a play on words and tribute to a legend most of us recognize, long before I became a spore vendor. I don't want anyone to think I am trying to pass off as him, though I do admire his dedication to the craft! I appreciate all of the kind words, though, from people saying they learned from "my" videos. I wish I could pass on those notes to Willy himself. Cheers and MUSH LOVE! MW
Cosmos is a heterogeneous network of many independent parallel blockchains, each powered by classical BFT consensus algorithms like Tendermint. Developers can easily build custom application specific blockchains, called Zones, through the Cosmos SDK framework. These Zones connect to Hubs, which are specifically designed to connect zones together. The vision of Cosmos is to have thousands of Zones and Hubs that are Interoperable through the Inter-Blockchain Communication Protocol (IBC). Cosmos can also connect to other systems through peg zones, which are specifically designed zones that each are custom made to interact with another ecosystem such as Ethereum and Bitcoin. Cosmos does not use Sharding with each Zone and Hub being sovereign with their own validator set. For a more in-depth look at Cosmos and provide more reference to points made in this article, please see my three part series — Part One, Part Two, Part Three (There's a youtube video with a quick video overview of Cosmos on the medium article - https://medium.com/ava-hub/comparison-between-avalanche-cosmos-and-polkadot-a2a98f46c03b)
Polkadot is a heterogeneous blockchain protocol that connects multiple specialised blockchains into one unified network. It achieves scalability through a sharding infrastructure with multiple blockchains running in parallel, called parachains, that connect to a central chain called the Relay Chain. Developers can easily build custom application specific parachains through the Substrate development framework. The relay chain validates the state transition of connected parachains, providing shared state across the entire ecosystem. If the Relay Chain must revert for any reason, then all of the parachains would also revert. This is to ensure that the validity of the entire system can persist, and no individual part is corruptible. The shared state makes it so that the trust assumptions when using parachains are only those of the Relay Chain validator set, and no other. Interoperability is enabled between parachains through Cross-Chain Message Passing (XCMP) protocol and is also possible to connect to other systems through bridges, which are specifically designed parachains or parathreads that each are custom made to interact with another ecosystem such as Ethereum and Bitcoin. The hope is to have 100 parachains connect to the relay chain. For a more in-depth look at Polkadot and provide more reference to points made in this article, please see my three part series — Part One, Part Two, Part Three (There's a youtube video with a quick video overview of Polkadot on the medium article - https://medium.com/ava-hub/comparison-between-avalanche-cosmos-and-polkadot-a2a98f46c03b)
Avalanche is a platform of platforms, ultimately consisting of thousands of subnets to form a heterogeneous interoperable network of many blockchains, that takes advantage of the revolutionary Avalanche Consensus protocols to provide a secure, globally distributed, interoperable and trustless framework offering unprecedented decentralisation whilst being able to comply with regulatory requirements. Avalanche allows anyone to create their own tailor-made application specific blockchains, supporting multiple custom virtual machines such as EVM and WASM and written in popular languages like Go (with others coming in the future) rather than lightly used, poorly-understood languages like Solidity. This virtual machine can then be deployed on a custom blockchain network, called a subnet, which consist of a dynamic set of validators working together to achieve consensus on the state of a set of many blockchains where complex rulesets can be configured to meet regulatory compliance. Avalanche was built with serving financial markets in mind. It has native support for easily creating and trading digital smart assets with complex custom rule sets that define how the asset is handled and traded to ensure regulatory compliance can be met. Interoperability is enabled between blockchains within a subnet as well as between subnets. Like Cosmos and Polkadot, Avalanche is also able to connect to other systems through bridges, through custom virtual machines made to interact with another ecosystem such as Ethereum and Bitcoin. For a more in-depth look at Avalanche and provide more reference to points made in this article, please see here and here (There's a youtube video with a quick video overview of Avalanche on the medium article - https://medium.com/ava-hub/comparison-between-avalanche-cosmos-and-polkadot-a2a98f46c03b)
Comparison between Cosmos, Polkadot and Avalanche
A frequent question I see being asked is how Cosmos, Polkadot and Avalanche compare? Whilst there are similarities there are also a lot of differences. This article is not intended to be an extensive in-depth list, but rather an overview based on some of the criteria that I feel are most important. For a more in-depth view I recommend reading the articles for each of the projects linked above and coming to your own conclusions. I want to stress that it’s not a case of one platform being the killer of all other platforms, far from it. There won’t be one platform to rule them all, and too often the tribalism has plagued this space. Blockchains are going to completely revolutionise most industries and have a profound effect on the world we know today. It’s still very early in this space with most adoption limited to speculation and trading mainly due to the limitations of Blockchain and current iteration of Ethereum, which all three of these platforms hope to address. For those who just want a quick summary see the image at the bottom of the article. With that said let’s have a look
Each Zone and Hub in Cosmos is capable of up to around 1000 transactions per second with bandwidth being the bottleneck in consensus. Cosmos aims to have thousands of Zones and Hubs all connected through IBC. There is no limit on the number of Zones / Hubs that can be created
Parachains in Polkadot are also capable of up to around 1500 transactions per second. A portion of the parachain slots on the Relay Chain will be designated as part of the parathread pool, the performance of a parachain is split between many parathreads offering lower performance and compete amongst themselves in a per-block auction to have their transactions included in the next relay chain block. The number of parachains is limited by the number of validators on the relay chain, they hope to be able to achieve 100 parachains.
Avalanche is capable of around 4500 transactions per second per subnet, this is based on modest hardware requirements to ensure maximum decentralisation of just 2 CPU cores and 4 GB of Memory and with a validator size of over 2,000 nodes. Performance is CPU-bound and if higher performance is required then more specialised subnets can be created with higher minimum requirements to be able to achieve 10,000 tps+ in a subnet. Avalanche aims to have thousands of subnets (each with multiple virtual machines / blockchains) all interoperable with each other. There is no limit on the number of Subnets that can be created.
All three platforms offer vastly superior performance to the likes of Bitcoin and Ethereum 1.0. Avalanche with its higher transactions per second, no limit on the number of subnets / blockchains that can be created and the consensus can scale to potentially millions of validators all participating in consensus scores ✅✅✅. Polkadot claims to offer more tps than cosmos, but is limited to the number of parachains (around 100) whereas with Cosmos there is no limit on the number of hubs / zones that can be created. Cosmos is limited to a fairly small validator size of around 200 before performance degrades whereas Polkadot hopes to be able to reach 1000 validators in the relay chain (albeit only a small number of validators are assigned to each parachain). Thus Cosmos and Polkadot scores ✅✅ https://preview.redd.it/2o0brllyvpq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=8f62bb696ecaafcf6184da005d5fe0129d504518
Tendermint consensus is limited to around 200 validators before performance starts to degrade. Whilst there is the Cosmos Hub it is one of many hubs in the network and there is no central hub or limit on the number of zones / hubs that can be created.
Polkadot has 1000 validators in the relay chain and these are split up into a small number that validate each parachain (minimum of 14). The relay chain is a central point of failure as all parachains connect to it and the number of parachains is limited depending on the number of validators (they hope to achieve 100 parachains). Due to the limited number of parachain slots available, significant sums of DOT will need to be purchased to win an auction to lease the slot for up to 24 months at a time. Thus likely to lead to only those with enough funds to secure a parachain slot. Parathreads are however an alternative for those that require less and more varied performance for those that can’t secure a parachain slot.
Avalanche consensus scan scale to tens of thousands of validators, even potentially millions of validators all participating in consensus through repeated sub-sampling. The more validators, the faster the network becomes as the load is split between them. There are modest hardware requirements so anyone can run a node and there is no limit on the number of subnets / virtual machines that can be created.
Avalanche offers unparalleled decentralisation using its revolutionary consensus protocols that can scale to millions of validators all participating in consensus at the same time. There is no limit to the number of subnets and virtual machines that can be created, and they can be created by anyone for a small fee, it scores ✅✅✅. Cosmos is limited to 200 validators but no limit on the number of zones / hubs that can be created, which anyone can create and scores ✅✅. Polkadot hopes to accommodate 1000 validators in the relay chain (albeit these are split amongst each of the parachains). The number of parachains is limited and maybe cost prohibitive for many and the relay chain is a ultimately a single point of failure. Whilst definitely not saying it’s centralised and it is more decentralised than many others, just in comparison between the three, it scores ✅ https://preview.redd.it/ckfamee0wpq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=c4355f145d821fabf7785e238dbc96a5f5ce2846
Tendermint consensus used in Cosmos reaches finality within 6 seconds. Cosmos consists of many Zones and Hubs that connect to each other. Communication between 2 zones could pass through many hubs along the way, thus also can contribute to latency times depending on the path taken as explained in part two of the articles on Cosmos. It doesn’t need to wait for an extended period of time with risk of rollbacks.
Polkadot provides a Hybrid consensus protocol consisting of Block producing protocol, BABE, and then a finality gadget called GRANDPA that works to agree on a chain, out of many possible forks, by following some simpler fork choice rule. Rather than voting on every block, instead it reaches agreements on chains. As soon as more than 2/3 of validators attest to a chain containing a certain block, all blocks leading up to that one are finalized at once. If an invalid block is detected after it has been finalised then the relay chain would need to be reverted along with every parachain. This is particularly important when connecting to external blockchains as those don’t share the state of the relay chain and thus can’t be rolled back. The longer the time period, the more secure the network is, as there is more time for additional checks to be performed and reported but at the expense of finality. Finality is reached within 60 seconds between parachains but for external ecosystems like Ethereum their state obviously can’t be rolled back like a parachain and so finality will need to be much longer (60 minutes was suggested in the whitepaper) and discussed in more detail in part three
Avalanche consensus achieves finality within 3 seconds, with most happening sub 1 second, immutable and completely irreversible. Any subnet can connect directly to another without having to go through multiple hops and any VM can talk to another VM within the same subnet as well as external subnets. It doesn’t need to wait for an extended period of time with risk of rollbacks.
With regards to performance far too much emphasis is just put on tps as a metric, the other equally important metric, if not more important with regards to finance is latency. Throughput measures the amount of data at any given time that it can handle whereas latency is the amount of time it takes to perform an action. It’s pointless saying you can process more transactions per second than VISA when it takes 60 seconds for a transaction to complete. Low latency also greatly increases general usability and customer satisfaction, nowadays everyone expects card payments, online payments to happen instantly. Avalanche achieves the best results scoring ✅✅✅, Cosmos with comes in second with 6 second finality ✅✅ and Polkadot with 60 second finality (which may be 60 minutes for external blockchains) scores ✅ https://preview.redd.it/kzup5x42wpq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=320eb4c25dc4fc0f443a7a2f7ff09567871648cd
Every Zone and Hub in Cosmos has their own validator set and different trust assumptions. Cosmos are researching a shared security model where a Hub can validate the state of connected zones for a fee but not released yet. Once available this will make shared security optional rather than mandatory.
Shared Security is mandatory with Polkadot which uses a Shared State infrastructure between the Relay Chain and all of the connected parachains. If the Relay Chain must revert for any reason, then all of the parachains would also revert. Every parachain makes the same trust assumptions, and as such the relay chain validates state transition and enables seamless interoperability between them. In return for this benefit, they have to purchase DOT and win an auction for one of the available parachain slots. However, parachains can’t just rely on the relay chain for their security, they will also need to implement censorship resistance measures and utilise proof of work / proof of stake for each parachain as well as discussed in part three, thus parachains can’t just rely on the security of the relay chain, they need to ensure sybil resistance mechanisms using POW and POS are implemented on the parachain as well.
A subnet in Avalanche consists of a dynamic set of validators working together to achieve consensus on the state of a set of many blockchains where complex rulesets can be configured to meet regulatory compliance. So unlike in Cosmos where each zone / hub has their own validators, A subnet can validate a single or many virtual machines / blockchains with a single validator set. Shared security is optional
Shared security is mandatory in polkadot and a key design decision in its infrastructure. The relay chain validates the state transition of all connected parachains and thus scores ✅✅✅. Subnets in Avalanche can validate state of either a single or many virtual machines. Each subnet can have their own token and shares a validator set, where complex rulesets can be configured to meet regulatory compliance. It scores ✅ ✅. Every Zone and Hub in cosmos has their own validator set / token but research is underway to have the hub validate the state transition of connected zones, but as this is still early in the research phase scores ✅ for now. https://preview.redd.it/pbgyk3o3wpq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=61c18e12932a250f5633c40633810d0f64520575
The Cosmos project started in 2016 with an ICO held in April 2017. There are currently around 50 projects building on the Cosmos SDK with a full list can be seen here and filtering for Cosmos SDK . Not all of the projects will necessarily connect using native cosmos sdk and IBC and some have forked parts of the Cosmos SDK and utilise the tendermint consensus such as Binance Chain but have said they will connect in the future.
The Polkadot project started in 2016 with an ICO held in October 2017. There are currently around 70 projects building on Substrate and a full list can be seen here and filtering for Substrate Based. Like with Cosmos not all projects built using substrate will necessarily connect to Polkadot and parachains or parathreads aren’t currently implemented in either the Live or Test network (Kusama) as of the time of this writing.
Avalanche in comparison started much later with Ava Labs being founded in 2018. Avalanche held it’s ICO in July 2020. Due to lot shorter time it has been in development, the number of projects confirmed are smaller with around 14 projects currently building on Avalanche. Due to the customisability of the platform though, many virtual machines can be used within a subnet making the process incredibly easy to port projects over. As an example, it will launch with the Ethereum Virtual Machine which enables byte for byte compatibility and all the tooling like Metamask, Truffle etc. will work, so projects can easily move over to benefit from the performance, decentralisation and low gas fees offered. In the future Cosmos and Substrate virtual machines could be implemented on Avalanche.
Whilst it’s still early for all 3 projects (and the entire blockchain space as a whole), there is currently more projects confirmed to be building on Cosmos and Polkadot, mostly due to their longer time in development. Whilst Cosmos has fewer projects, zones are implemented compared to Polkadot which doesn’t currently have parachains. IBC to connect zones and hubs together is due to launch Q2 2021, thus both score ✅✅✅. Avalanche has been in development for a lot shorter time period, but is launching with an impressive feature set right from the start with ability to create subnets, VMs, assets, NFTs, permissioned and permissionless blockchains, cross chain atomic swaps within a subnet, smart contracts, bridge to Ethereum etc. Applications can easily port over from other platforms and use all the existing tooling such as Metamask / Truffle etc but benefit from the performance, decentralisation and low gas fees offered. Currently though just based on the number of projects in comparison it scores ✅. https://preview.redd.it/4zpi6s85wpq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=e91ade1a86a5d50f4976f3b23a46e9287b08e373
Cosmos enables permissioned and permissionless zones which can connect to each other with the ability to have full control over who validates the blockchain. For permissionless zones each zone / hub can have their own token and they are in control who validates.
With polkadot the state transition is performed by a small randomly selected assigned group of validators from the relay chain plus with the possibility that state is rolled back if an invalid transaction of any of the other parachains is found. This may pose a problem for enterprises that need complete control over who performs validation for regulatory reasons. In addition due to the limited number of parachain slots available Enterprises would have to acquire and lock up large amounts of a highly volatile asset (DOT) and have the possibility that they are outbid in future auctions and find they no longer can have their parachain validated and parathreads don’t provide the guaranteed performance requirements for the application to function.
Avalanche enables permissioned and permissionless subnets and complex rulesets can be configured to meet regulatory compliance. For example a subnet can be created where its mandatory that all validators are from a certain legal jurisdiction, or they hold a specific license and regulated by the SEC etc. Subnets are also able to scale to tens of thousands of validators, and even potentially millions of nodes, all participating in consensus so every enterprise can run their own node rather than only a small amount. Enterprises don’t have to hold large amounts of a highly volatile asset, but instead pay a fee in AVAX for the creation of the subnets and blockchains which is burnt.
Avalanche provides the customisability to run private permissioned blockchains as well as permissionless where the enterprise is in control over who validates the blockchain, with the ability to use complex rulesets to meet regulatory compliance, thus scores ✅✅✅. Cosmos is also able to run permissioned and permissionless zones / hubs so enterprises have full control over who validates a blockchain and scores ✅✅. Polkadot requires locking up large amounts of a highly volatile asset with the possibility of being outbid by competitors and being unable to run the application if the guaranteed performance is required and having to migrate away. The relay chain validates the state transition and can roll back the parachain should an invalid block be detected on another parachain, thus scores ✅. https://preview.redd.it/li5jy6u6wpq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=e2a95f1f88e5efbcf9e23c789ae0f002c8eb73fc
Cosmos will connect Hubs and Zones together through its IBC protocol (due to release in Q1 2020). Connecting to blockchains outside of the Cosmos ecosystem would either require the connected blockchain to fork their code to implement IBC or more likely a custom “Peg Zone” will be created specific to work with a particular blockchain it’s trying to bridge to such as Ethereum etc. Each Zone and Hub has different trust levels and connectivity between 2 zones can have different trust depending on which path it takes (this is discussed more in this article). Finality time is low at 6 seconds, but depending on the number of hops, this can increase significantly.
Polkadot’s shared state means each parachain that connects shares the same trust assumptions, of the relay chain validators and that if one blockchain needs to be reverted, all of them will need to be reverted. Interoperability is enabled between parachains through Cross-Chain Message Passing (XCMP) protocol and is also possible to connect to other systems through bridges, which are specifically designed parachains or parathreads that each are custom made to interact with another ecosystem such as Ethereum and Bitcoin. Finality time between parachains is around 60 seconds, but longer will be needed (initial figures of 60 minutes in the whitepaper) for connecting to external blockchains. Thus limiting the appeal of connecting two external ecosystems together through Polkadot. Polkadot is also limited in the number of Parachain slots available, thus limiting the amount of blockchains that can be bridged. Parathreads could be used for lower performance bridges, but the speed of future blockchains is only going to increase.
A subnet can validate multiple virtual machines / blockchains and all blockchains within a subnet share the same trust assumptions / validator set, enabling cross chain interoperability. Interoperability is also possible between any other subnet, with the hope Avalanche will consist of thousands of subnets. Each subnet may have a different trust level, but as the primary network consists of all validators then this can be used as a source of trust if required. As Avalanche supports many virtual machines, bridges to other ecosystems are created by running the connected virtual machine. There will be an Ethereum bridge using the EVM shortly after mainnet. Finality time is much faster at sub 3 seconds (with most happening under 1 second) with no chance of rolling back so more appealing when connecting to external blockchains.
All 3 systems are able to perform interoperability within their ecosystem and transfer assets as well as data, as well as use bridges to connect to external blockchains. Cosmos has different trust levels between its zones and hubs and can create issues depending on which path it takes and additional latency added. Polkadot provides the same trust assumptions for all connected parachains but has long finality and limited number of parachain slots available. Avalanche provides the same trust assumptions for all blockchains within a subnet, and different trust levels between subnets. However due to the primary network consisting of all validators it can be used for trust. Avalanche also has a much faster finality time with no limitation on the number of blockchains / subnets / bridges that can be created. Overall all three blockchains excel with interoperability within their ecosystem and each score ✅✅. https://preview.redd.it/ai0bkbq8wpq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=3e85ee6a3c4670f388ccea00b0c906c3fb51e415
The ATOM token is the native token for the Cosmos Hub. It is commonly mistaken by people that think it’s the token used throughout the cosmos ecosystem, whereas it’s just used for one of many hubs in Cosmos, each with their own token. Currently ATOM has little utility as IBC isn’t released and has no connections to other zones / hubs. Once IBC is released zones may prefer to connect to a different hub instead and so ATOM is not used. ATOM isn’t a fixed capped supply token and supply will continuously increase with a yearly inflation of around 10% depending on the % staked. The current market cap for ATOM as of the time of this writing is $1 Billion with 203 million circulating supply. Rewards can be earnt through staking to offset the dilution caused by inflation. Delegators can also get slashed and lose a portion of their ATOM should the validator misbehave.
Polkadot’s native token is DOT and it’s used to secure the Relay Chain. Each parachain needs to acquire sufficient DOT to win an auction on an available parachain lease period of up to 24 months at a time. Parathreads have a fixed fee for registration that would realistically be much lower than the cost of acquiring a parachain slot and compete with other parathreads in a per-block auction to have their transactions included in the next relay chain block. DOT isn’t a fixed capped supply token and supply will continuously increase with a yearly inflation of around 10% depending on the % staked. The current market cap for DOT as of the time of this writing is $4.4 Billion with 852 million circulating supply. Delegators can also get slashed and lose their DOT (potentially 100% of their DOT for serious attacks) should the validator misbehave.
AVAX is the native token for the primary network in Avalanche. Every validator of any subnet also has to validate the primary network and stake a minimum of 2000 AVAX. There is no limit to the number of validators like other consensus methods then this can cater for tens of thousands even potentially millions of validators. As every validator validates the primary network, this can be a source of trust for interoperability between subnets as well as connecting to other ecosystems, thus increasing amount of transaction fees of AVAX. There is no slashing in Avalanche, so there is no risk to lose your AVAX when selecting a validator, instead rewards earnt for staking can be slashed should the validator misbehave. Because Avalanche doesn’t have direct slashing, it is technically possible for someone to both stake AND deliver tokens for something like a flash loan, under the invariant that all tokens that are staked are returned, thus being able to make profit with staked tokens outside of staking itself. There will also be a separate subnet for Athereum which is a ‘spoon,’ or friendly fork, of Ethereum, which benefits from the Avalanche consensus protocol and applications in the Ethereum ecosystem. It’s native token ATH will be airdropped to ETH holders as well as potentially AVAX holders as well. This can be done for other blockchains as well. Transaction fees on the primary network for all 3 of the blockchains as well as subscription fees for creating a subnet and blockchain are paid in AVAX and are burnt, creating deflationary pressure. AVAX is a fixed capped supply of 720 million tokens, creating scarcity rather than an unlimited supply which continuously increase of tokens at a compounded rate each year like others. Initially there will be 360 tokens minted at Mainnet with vesting periods between 1 and 10 years, with tokens gradually unlocking each quarter. The Circulating supply is 24.5 million AVAX with tokens gradually released each quater. The current market cap of AVAX is around $100 million.
Monthly Update: Parachute Social Liquidity Pools, Ivan(OnTech) Joins as Advisor, Townhall, Trending on CoinGecko, Covered by EllioTrades Crypto + Altcoin Buzz, …– 31 Jul – 3 Sept'20
Hola folks! Yesterday we got caught up with everything that happened in July 2020 at Parachute and ParJar. Today, I will be sharing news from August. Looking back at those five weeks, they were easily one of the most action-packed ones in the Parachuteverse ever. If you missed my note about the new format from yesterday: “…I thought it would be best to club all the Parachute news into monthly reports and publish them back-to-back over the next few days to catch up with the latest…For a change, we will be focusing on Parachute + ParJar news alone in these monthly reports. Because if we include news from our partner project in these, we might as well publish the Encyclopaedia Britannica”. In case you thought yesterday’s was a long read, boy are you in for a shock today. Make sure to get yourself a beverage and set aside an hour to go through all that will follow. So here’s goes the Parachute scrolls dating 31-Jul-20 to 3-Sept-20 – 31 Jul – 6 Aug'20: $PAR became one of the top trending coins on CoinGecko this week. The token also received a perfect score on DEXTools. Pretty sweet! We crossed 2500 members in the Parachute channel after quite a while. But no sign of Ron yet. Haha. BrainiacChess Network ($CHESS) was added to ParJar. We got a surprise listing on Hotbit ourselves with an ETH and BTC pairing. $PAR was listed on CoinW exchange this week too. More details here. Looks like wrapping up a day at Parachute usually ends with steaks. If you ever thought otherwise, a look at the $PAR contract should dispel that doubt. A community vote was opened up to list the next token on ParJar. Congratulations to Chirag for winning this week’s Parena and taking home 6k+ $PAR. Neat! Everybody knows about the bitcoin pizza. But did you know about the bitcoin burger? Read all about AlBundy185's crazy BTC journey here. What a wild ride indeed! AlBundy185’s BTC ride has to be a stuff of legends Pic of Gian with Diamond Dallas Page taken from his epic WCW Thunder story (https://t.me/parachutetokengroup/395125). Spooky sent us! Gian announced a temporary stoppage of Two-for-Tuesday to make way for the second annual Big Brother contest. Soon after, he opened up entries for the contest. Woot! Fans can also get updates and spoilers from the GC’s BB group. Gamer Boy hosted a “Random Gk” trivia in TTR this week. Naj hosted a Sunday “Mega Trivia”. Afful held a “General knowledge” trivia as well. Sebastian shared the new ParJar Gaming schedule for August. Yes, you read that right. 75k $PAR in the monthly prize pool. Woot! For this week's Friday creative prompt (#nottodaycovid) by Jason, Parachuters talked "about what you are doing to keep yourself sane during the pandemic" for some cool $PAR. Alejandro’s betta fish collection is a sight for sore eyes Elmar, these are all amazing! Model ships made by Bada during the lockdown. Awesome! Ivan (from Ivan on Tech) joined the Parachute channel this week. Looks like next few weeks are going to be super exciting! Doc Vic hosted a flash game in the Parachute War Zone for some cool $PAR prizes. Mario had an interesting idea. Change the ParJar display name to “ParJar Wallet” to actually reflect the true nature of ParJar. And voila! “ParJar” is now “ParJar Wallet”. Instant feedback implementation! We also finally got an unofficial price chatter group running. As we mentioned in the last update, Clinton released a limited edition shirt in the Parachute Store this week to commemorate the Liquidity Program on Uniswap. Some of the Parena merch had to be sunsetted from the store though. So if you grabbed some before that, you are now the proud owner of rare Parena merchandise. James from the Parachute Athletics and Running Club announced a Secret Challenge for 400 $PAR. Cap shared a sneak peek into what’s brewing behind the scenes. He also posted some experimentalvisuals for the website and for ParJar: Cap’s creative spurts are super trippy! Pt. I Trippy creatives from Cap Pt. II 7 Aug – 13 Aug'20: ParJar did some heavy lifting on behalf of Uniswap this week when Uniswap got clogged but ParJar swaps were running smoothly. If you haven’t seen how swaps work yet, CF made another cool video tutorial. Following last week’s community vote, Enjin ($ENJ) won a spot to become the next swappable token on ParJar. DMM DAO’s $DMG token was listed on ParJar as well. Inputs from the community were taken for listing the next DeFi token on ParJar. A new tier was added for the Parachute Uniswap Liquidity Rewards Program this week. Last week’s incredible Parachute run on CoinGecko was noticed by many including DAO Maker and Blockfyre. We got word that Parachute was featured in Ivan’s (Ivan on Tech) private report meant for his closed group of subscribers. Word on the street is that Parachute was reviewed in detail in the Hidden Gems section of the report and received the highest score among all the projects covered there. Super cool! He also talked about Parachute in his latest video. Watch out for timestamps 42:23 and 47:48. And followed it up with another mention in next day’s video as well. Pretty cool! $PAR also saw some crazy movements and activity. And all this started while Cap was chilling on an Amtrack on his way to Vermont. Haha. Cap shared this amazing view from Vermont Check out the Sentivate gear in the Parachute shop. For this week's creative prompt (#donkeyart), Jason had Parachuters "find an image of a piece of art that particularly moved" them and explain how and why. Darren’s Mega Friday Trivia in Tiproom had a sweet 6300 $PAR prize pot. Peace Love (Yanni) hosted another quiz in TTR with some more cool $PAR prizes. Clinton’s charity For Living Independence (FLI) became Lumenthropy’s spotlight charity this week which means they will be matching all $XLM donations to FLI. Lumenthropy is Stellar’s charitable arm. The entries to Gian's Big Brother Contest closed this week with Gian starting to share updates on episodes and $PAR rewards to weekly winners. If you want to catch all the action, head over to the BB Group set up by GC. And the most amazing thing happened this week – As new folks were joining into the Parachute group, someone named Ender Wiggin chimed into the chatter and as we talked we figured that he was not only Cap's neighbour in NYC but was also my school senior. Parachute truly brings the world together! PARs & Recreation wants to create a Parachute foodies group. And if his posts are anything to go by (figs, blueberries, Ikura), it’s going to be a hunger-inducing channel. Doc Vic (from Cuba) announced the start of a team Deathmatch tournament in the Parachute War Zone. Congratulations, Clinton! Looks like an epic ParJar video is underway. Parachute was also covered extensively by EllioTrades Crypto this week. YouTuber CM TopDog too made an awesome video on Parachute where he talked at length about the project, the roadmap, the token and more. Saweet! After seeing Albundy185 struggle with pooling on Uniswap, Cap and Ice had a light bulb moment for an entirely new feature on ParJar that would make pooling social and fun. More details to be released over the next few weeks. Jose’s epic new gif puts Cap’s lightbulb moment about social pools into perspective :D Looks like Alexis’ neighbour is into Uniswap pools as well. Get it, get it? Haha Congratulations on the new store, Hang! Folks who don't know, Hang is building a hempire. World domination next 14 Aug – 20 Aug'20: As mentioned last week, Cap and crew had something cool brewing for folks who pool assets on Uniswap. Presenting Social Liquidity Pools (SLP) by Parachute. No more pooling/staking alone in silos. Get together with others doing what you love most – pool assets on Uniswap (either directly or through ParJar - upcoming), then stake the received liquidity tokens into SLPs on ParJar to get additional rewards and social bonuses like entry into VIP or premium token curated groups. Making Uniswap social! Click here to read about what’s next for ParJar and Parachute. The first Uniswap $PAR Liquidity Pool Rewards Program came to a close. All qualified poolers will receive their rewards in 2 months. DeFi superstar yearn.finance ($YFI) was added to ParJar this week for both sends/tips and swaps. Woohoo! Waifu in the house. After last week’s community inputs regarding the next new token on ParJar, a public vote was started. Uptrennd founder Jeff Kirdeikis’ latest project, TrustSwap ($SWAP), got listed on ParJar after winning that vote which got a shoutout from Ivan as well. So now we have a tongue twister on our hands. Haha. Cap also shared the first hints about $PAR governance. More details to be posted next week. Plus, Cap announced that he will be hosting a townhall next week. Stay tuned! Get your questionnaire ready. Like last week, Parachute chatter popped up in Ivan’s latest video this week as well. Dang! What an amazing place, Victor For all the mobile gamers out there, Tony set up a Parachute Corporation for the EVE Echoes game. Hit him up if you want to join. Naj hosted a Sunday TTR trivia with a 6300 $PAR prize pot. Gamer Boy held one as well. Darren’s Mega Trivia in Tiproom was super fun as always. Jason did an impromptu token giveaway so that fellow collectors could complete their ParJar collection followed by a mini contest to "guess the closest to the number of miles I am about to run" for some cool $PAR. Chris hosted this week’s creative Friday prompt (#adminfunday): “Using the profile image of any Parachute admin as inspiration, draw what you think that admin would like to do on the weekend”. And what an amazing video Hans (Pad of DeFi Chad). Haha! Super hilarious and fun. Some of the radest #adminfunday entries. Clockwise from top left: Skittish, TyReal, Staph It!!, Yosma, Ik Now, Jeff, Chica Cuba, Jhang, Kuuraku 21 Aug – 27 Aug'20: Ivan (from Ivan On Tech) joined Parachute as an advisor. Woot! Welcome to the Parachute fam. Here’s a sneak peek into what the first day discussions with Ivan as an advisor revolved around. The project got featured in France’s largest crypto news platform, Journal du Coin. Noice! Click here for the English translated version. As mentioned earlier, Cap hosted a townhall this week. If you missed it, you can catch up here. He also shared a rough draft snapshot of “how the governance and fee distribution contracts could look for ParJar Wallet”. Plus, some updates from this week and a big picture view at what staking liquidity through ParJar could look like. Parachute also got mentioned in another of Ivan’s videos this week. Snapshot from the Parachute Townhall In partnership with Sentivate, ParJar distributed $SNTVT tokens this week to 1500 people of whom 800 were new users. Sentivate hosted this drop for members of a specific group as a token of appreciation for their support. Reminiscent of the AMGO drop, this was a precursor of “how PAR drops + other token drops could work for our Social Liquidity pooling”. The $PAR Governance whitepaper was released and initial brainstorming started in the tokenomics group. Cap was also interviewed by YouTuber Money Party (@Edward_F) this week to talk at length about where we are at and where we are heading. We also received a super duper shoutout from CryptoTube in his latest video where he did a deep dive into ParJar and Parachute. Thanks a ton! Cryptovator did a cool feature on the project as well. Cap added more changes to the site to show: \"ParJar wallet in action along with…the integrations\" + Big Picture In this week's creative contest, Jason put up a #writingprompt: "...imagine you are a brand new intern at my new mega corporation...Today is your first day and you are told you need to present something about crypto to upper management...all you know is Bitcoin is a thing and some vague information about it. Pick a coin or general crypto subject and write a short story...None of the facts or material can be correct in your presentation...". Haha! After helping fellow Parachuters with their ParJar collection last week, Jason set up a collector’s group this week. If you have more than 30 of the coins/tokens listed on ParJar in your @parjar_bot collection already, send Jason a PM and he will get you in. Victor hosted a “Big Trivia” in TTR this week for 6300 $PAR in prizes. Afful held a quiz in Tiproom on “General Knowledge” as well. Check out these wicked new shorts in the Parachute Store based on Jose’s gif. Epic stuff, Jose! Haha Nice haul from the Parachute Beer Exchange, CF! Markus did you a solid Boldman Stachs pointed out that $PAR had the highest Galaxy Score on social media analytics platform LunarCRUSH this week. Pretty neat! CF took note. And like Cap mentioned, it has mostly been thanks to him. Haha. And big up to Jesús (@JALBARRAN02) for making a ParJar guide video for our Spanish crew. You rock! Interesting results from the DeFi survey: majority of crypto folks are still DeFi-curious. A new community vote was thrown open for listing the next DeFi token on ParJar. Anyone who's been around a bit already knows that Clinton does some amazing work at his charity, For Living Independence, which creates assistive technology for disabled individuals. This week he shared some snaps of a build which now enables a lady in a wheelchair get upstairs in her home. This is so wholesome, Clinton! Thank you for doing what you do. 28 Aug – 3 Sep'20: ParJar was featured in Altcoin Buzz’s latest video. Noice! Click here and here to read some recent updates from Cap. After winning last week’s vote, Akropolis ($AKRO) became the latest token to be listed on ParJar. Woot! bZx crew gave some serious competition too. So we had to get them on ParJar as well. $BZRX was listed this week right after $AKRO. $PAR now has 7k on-chain HODLers. Saweet! Sentivate will be our first partner project to have a Social Liquidity Pool on ParJar. This is amazing! Time for another community vote to get a new project listed on ParJar – this time it is DeFi Pie v/s Ren v/s Proxi DeFi v/s Others. If you’ve missed all the latest Parachute-related videos, we have your back. Check this tweet thread to catch up. Naj hosted a Saturday Tiproom Trivia for 6300 $PAR in prizes. Congratulations to Maria for winning the latest Parena. 8k $PAR in the bag. Woohoo! And congo rats to Yanni as well for winning a special edition shirt from the Parachute store. Gamer Boy’s Big Trivia in TTR saw a ton of participation as always. The Parachute Fantasy Football contest is back! Chris set up the entry rules this week. CF has done wonders for Parachute’s social metrics: “..+500% in our fi(r)st marketing month..” Whew, what a month! And with that we close for August 2020 @ Parachute/ParJar. See you again with one more epic monthly update tomorrow. Cheerio!
Sonoran Spores has the stickers you need for research with 20+ varieties of Cubensis and a growing list of exotics! Our daily deals include 5 tube sticker packs for $30, 8 for $40, 10 for $50, 15 for $75 + FREE US shipping/tracking on all tube sticker packs!🌵🍄💙
Hi there friends, we hope you are all doing well! We have freshly made KSSS and Great White Monster 10cc tube stickers ready to go, plus many other varieties that were freshly restocked over the weekend. Be sure to check out our 10cc spore pack deals below to get the biggest bang for your buck!! 👉🏼If you’re interested in gourmet stickers, please send us a message/chat to get a menu as they won’t be listed on this post👈🏼 👉🏼Sadly, PayPal suspended our account and we are still in the waiting period to be reviewed (we are still about halfway through the 180 waiting period). With that being said PayPal is not a viable payment option at this time. We are still able to accept Cashapp, Venmo, Zelle, Apple Pay and Bitcoin. We can only take international payments via Bitcoin at this time. 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Cubensis varieties that first appeared in the 1980’S. AVAILABLE IN 10cc TUBE STICKERS, SWAB STICKERS, AND PRINT STICKERS ~Great White Monster: This is a leucistic variety although it is still a mystery what exactly it mutated from. It is possible that is has become its own variety. AVAILABLE IN 10cc TUBE STICKERS ~Koh Samui Super Strain (KSSS): Another variety that came from Thailand, found on the country’s second largest island, Ko Samui. This variety is a isolate of the original Koh Samui and is also known as Thai 2. AVAILABLE IN 10cc TUBE STICKERS AND SWAB STICKERS ~Lizard King: This variety originates from Mexico discovered by a person named The Lizard King. AVAILABLE IN 10cc TUBE STICKERS, SWAB STICKERS, AND PRINT STICKERS ~Mazatapec: originally from Mexico and ceremoniously used by the Mazatec indigenous people to connect with spirits and the divine, and to heal their ailments. 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AVAILABLE IN 10cc TUBE STICKERS AND SWAB STICKERS ~PES Amazonian: PES stands for Pacifica Exotica Spora, who developed the variety (among others you may be familiar with) after they found it in the Amazon rainforest. AVAILABLE IN 10cc TUBE STICKERS AND SWAB STICKERS ~PES Hawaiian: Interestingly, this variety does not originate from Hawaii, where it comes from is a mystery. It gets its name because the company Pacifica Exotica Spora (PES) that this variety came from is located in Hawaii. AVAILABLE IN 10cc TUBE STICKERS AND SWAB STICKERS ~Puerto Rican: This variety originated from a town called Canovanas which is on the Northeast side of Puerto Rico. It is great for researchers of all levels. AVAILABLE IN 10cc TUBE STICKERS ~Red Boys: A must have for any mycologist as they uniquely drop red or rust colored stickers. It was very popular in the 90s and was brought back into popularity from a 20 year old sticker! AVAILABLE IN 10cc TUBE STICKERS, SWAB STICKERS, AND PRINT STICKERS ~Rusty Whyte: Anther unique variety that is both leucistic and drops rust colored stickers instead of the normal purple. This variety is a hybrid between AA+ and Cambodian Rust Spores- a must have for any sticker collector. AVAILABLE IN 10cc TUBE STICKERS, SWAB STICKERS, AND PRINT STICKERS ~Taman Negara: Genetics are rumored to have been started by a fellow Redditor. These stickers were acquired from a trusted friend here on Reddit. AVAILABLE IN 10cc TUBE STICKERS, SWAB STICKERS, AND PRINT STICKERS ~Tasmanian: Dependable sticker variety for research. Originates from Tasmania, as the name suggests. AVAILABLE IN 10cc TUBE STICKERS AND PRINT STICKERS ~Treasure Coast: This is a classic Cubensis variety that originated from Florida. Recommended for those who are still starting out. AVAILABLE IN 10cc TUBE STICKERS AND SWAB STICKERS ~Z-strain: an excellent addition to anyone’s sticker library as it is one of the best commercially available varieties today for any skill level. AVAILABLE IN 10cc TUBE STICKERS AND SWAB STICKERS 🌵ACTIVE STICKER PRICES🌵 P. CUBENSIS PRINT STICKERS: -$15 EACH (free untracked shipping, $3 US tracked shipping) P. CUBENSIS 10cc TUBE STICKERS: -1 for $8 -2 for $15 -3 for $20 (+$4 US shipping) (FREE US shipping with orders of 5 or more tube stickers) *Message to inquire about bulk prices P. CUBENSIS SWAB STICKERS: -1 pack for $10 -2 packs for $18 -3 packs for $25 (+$3 US shipping) **2 swab stickers per pack!! 🔬EXOTIC STICKERS AVAILABLE🔬 ***EXOTICS ARE AVAILABLE IN SWAB STICKERS ONLY ❌WILL NOT SHIP TO CA, ID, or GA 🎨🔬 STICKERS ARE FOR ART PURPOSES OR FOR STICKING ON YOUR MICROSCOPE ONLY. DO NOT CONTACT OR MENTION ANY OTHER USES FOR THESE STICKERS ~Albino Penis Envy: $20 per pack; this is a hybrid between Penis Envy and Albino PF and it is a true albino meaning it lacks all pigment and has clear stickers ~Avery’s Albino: $15 per pack; This variety is an albino mutation of a Cambodian. Being a true albino this variety lacks all pigment which makes the stickers clear. ~Melmac (Homestead Penis Envy): $15 per pack; The original Penis Envy genetics. A must have for any sticker collector. ~Panaeolus cambodginiensis var. Sandoz: $20 per pack; Originates in Cambodia. ~Panaeolus cinctulus: $10 per pack; also known as the Banded Mottlegill or the weed Panaeolus due to how easily it can grow in the wild. It is the most common psilocybin containing mushroom growing wildly in California. In nature, they are commonly found growing in dung, in heavily fertilized gardens or fields, and in straw or hay. THESE STICKERS WERE COLLECTED FROM WILD SPECIMENS**** ~Psilocybe caerulescens: $15 per pack; This species is also know as the Landslide mushroom because it is commonly found growing naturally in areas after a landslide event. It is 1 of 3 species that were likely used by ancient Aztecs for ceremonial and spiritual purposes. THESE STICKERS WERE COLLECTED FROM WILD SPECIMENS**** ~Psilocybe galindoi (ATL#7): $10 per pack; Also known as Philosopher’s Stone, it was originally found in Georgia, but DNA testing proved it was very closely related to P. mexicana var. “galindoi” (galindii) which is native to Mexico. THESE STICKERS WERE COLLECTED FROM WILD SPECIMENS**** ~Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata: $15 per pack; Can be distinguished from other species by their rhomboid shaped stickers. They naturally occur in the eastern and southern US on woodchips. THESE STICKERS WERE COLLECTED FROM WILD SPECIMENS**** ~Psilocybe subaeruginosa: $15 per pack; This species is common in Australia and New Zealand commonly found growing wild in wood chips, garden beds, and eucalyptus forests. THESE STICKERS WERE COLLECTED FROM WILD SPECIMENS**** **2 swab stickers per pack 🍄DEALS🍄 -5 tube sticker packs: Get 5 different 10cc tube stickers of your choice (or dealers choice) for $30 (FREE US shipping/tracking) -8 tube sticker packs: get 8 10cc tube stickers of your choice (or dealers choice) $40 (FREE US shipping/tracking) -10 tube sticker packs: get 10 10cc tube stickers of your choice (or dealers choice) for $50 (FREE US shipping/tracking) -15 tube sticker packs: get 15 10cc tube stickers of your choice (or dealers choice) for $75 (FREE US shipping/tracking) -20 tube sticker pack: get 20 10cc tube stickers of your choice (or dealers choice) for $100 (FREE US shipping/tracking) -Beginner’s Set: comes with 4 10cc tube stickers that are great for those who are just starting out in the hobby and are looking for practice for $25 (FREE US shipping/tracking). Comes with 1x Golden Teacher, 1x B+, and the last 2 are your choice between Z-Strain, Mazatapec, Treasure Coast, PES Amazonian, Red boys, or Ecuadorian -Collector’s Set: get one of each of the 24 P. Cubensis varieties that are available in 10cc tube stickers for $120 (FREE US shipping/tracking) **Add McKennaii SWABS for $5 (25 different Cubensis varieties for $125) -5 swab sticker pack: Get 5 NON-EXOTIC swab stickers of your choice for $40 (FREE US shipping/tracking) -Connoisseur Kit: Get one pack of swab stickers of each of the exotics available for $110 (FREE US shipping/tracking) 🌵SUPPLIES🌵 -Rolls of micropore tape -$3 a roll -$10 for 4 rolls -Rolls of breathable self adhesive tape: $8.50 a roll (Parafilm substitute- used for agar work) -Sealed and sterile cotton tipped applicators (for making swab stickers): -$2 per pack (2 swabs per pack) -$8 for 5 packs (2 swabs per pack) -Sealed, sterile blunt tipped needles: 75¢ each -Logo Stickers: 1 Free Sonoran Spores sticker comes with every order! If you’d like extra, they’re $2 each for 5 for $8! 🔬SHIPPING🔬 *Please check local laws on active stickers before contacting (will not ship to CA, GA, ID- NO REFUNDS FOR PAYMENTS MADE TO SHIP TO CA, ID, or GA) *$4 shipping/tracking anywhere in the US (FREE US shipping/tracking on 5, 8, 10, and 15 sticker packs and collectors set) *No refunds for postal service errors. We will reship in the US if the package is damaged but you must repay shipping fee *AZ customers: We do NOT do in person pick ups, drop offs, or meet ups for safety reasons *If you are having problems with delivery please contact USPS- we have no control over or information on what happens with packages once they are dropped off at the Post Office. *No refunds or free reshipping for international packages that are held by customs or do not arrive (Does not happen often but there’s always a chance) 🍄HOW TO ORDER🍄 Just send us a message OR chat with: -what products you’re interested in purchasing and how many -which form of payment you’d prefer to use (Venmo, Cashapp, Zelle, ApplePay and Bitcoin) *Currently unable to accept PayPal. We apologize for any inconvenience. -your shipping name and address (please make sure you include your FULL and CORRECT address- if it is returned to sender due to a faulty or incorrect address, you must repay the shipping fees) -any other questions you may have 🌵Do you have unwanted stickers??🌵 We will buy them, looking to purchase in bulk! Send me a chat or message for more info. DO NOT MENTION CULTIVATION 🎨🔬 STICKERS ARE FOR ART PURPOSES OR FOR STICKING ON YOUR MICROSCOPE ONLY. DO NOT CONTACT OR MENTION ANY OTHER USES FOR THESE STICKERS ** A 70% refund is issued if you mention anything other than art uses or sticking on your microscope. *WE WILL NOT SHIP STICKERS TO CA, ID, or GA! 🎊 if you leave a review (or have already left a review) just link it in your next order and enjoy 15% off :) Be well, stay positive, mush love🌵🍄💙
Reçu une tentative de chantage avec mon email/vieux mdp
Je voulais juste partager vite fait une histoire de cybersécurité qui m'a bien fait stresser pendant 5 minutes... J'ai reçu ceci pendant la nuit: sujet: vieux mot de passe [ça fait flipper quand même au départ] I know ( Password)is one of your password on day of hack.. Lets get directly to the point. Not one person has paid me to check about you. You do not know me and you're probably thinking why you are getting this email? in fact, i actually placed a malware on the adult vids (adult porn) website and you know what, you visited this site to experience fun (you know what i mean). When you were viewing videos, your browser started out operating as a RDP having a key logger which provided me with accessibility to your display and web cam. immediately after that, my malware obtained every one of your contacts from your Messenger, FB, as well as email account. after that i created a double-screen video. 1st part shows the video you were viewing (you have a nice taste omg), and 2nd part displays the recording of your cam, and its you. Best solution would be to pay me $1xxx. We are going to refer to it as a donation. in this situation, i most certainly will without delay remove your video. My -BTC -address: xxxxx [case SeNSiTiVe, copy & paste it] You could go on your life like this never happened and you will not ever hear back again from me. You'll make the payment via Bitcoin (if you do not know this, search 'how to buy bitcoin' in Google). if you are planning on going to the law, surely, this e-mail can not be traced back to me, because it's hacked too. I have taken care of my actions. i am not looking to ask you for a lot, i simply want to be paid. if i do not receive the bitcoin;, i definitely will send out your video recording to all of your contacts including friends and family, co-workers, and so on. Nevertheless, if i do get paid, i will destroy the recording immediately. If you need proof, reply with Yeah then i will send out your video recording to your 8 friends. it's a nonnegotiable offer and thus please don't waste mine time & yours by replying to this message. Le temps de ressortir un PC non vérolé et de googler "malware blackmail threat", le premier résultat google est: https://www.consumer.ftc.gov/blog/2020/04/scam-emails-demand-bitcoin-threaten-blackmail C'est donc une tentative très commune, et pas personnalisée. Ouf ! Ceci étant: 1/ A qui envoyer une copie du message pour signalement ? 2/ Je vais en profiter pour dé-véroler mes machines (windows 10). Quel meilleur site/app pour ce faire ? 3/ on ne le rappellera jamais assez les gens: mdp aléatoire unique pour chaque site important + machin truc SMS de signalement de nouvelle connexion systématique (je sais plus le nom)
So on thrursday (2 1/2 days ago) I got a spam email threatening to send an " iNnApROpRiAtE vIdEo Of mE" if I don't pay up 740 Bitcoin. It said "I've been watching you through your camera and I have your password" blah blah blah... etc. So at first I was scared, but then I realized it was just a data breach from a an app called Wishbone, and it was an old password. I wasn't worried anymore, until... I logged on to my computer, and it was a bit laggy. I thought it was normal though, of course. I went to log in to my google account and it just showed a screen with 5 lines, the google logo and a link. Is this because It's just glitching...? It's happened 3 times today. My friends say they got a similar email a long time ago, threatening to leak videos of them if they don't pay. Nothing happened to them though, plus, I have an antivirus and camera blocker. Since my email go breached, I bet I'm gonna receive tons of spam now, like I already am. I obviously won't click on any, but still... I ran an antivirus scan just in case and it says nothing was found, and I used haveibeenpwned and a few sites showed up, which I used to use a long time ago. I deleted those accounts, but I bet my info is still somewhere. So in conclusion, I'm honestly SO paranoid about everything. Can someone tell me what's going on, or how to prevent spam like this from happening so frequently? Thank you!
Question: Where and when to buy? (This assumes you want in to Bitcoin but don't own any)
Wait for a retracement which may or may not come, or
Buy much higher probably via FOMO
This is the very tricky question non-coin holders, who want to buy, have right now. This is why I've always said that whoever paid $18k-20k is actually sitting in a pretty good position because he doesn't have to answer that very tricky question (assuming of course he didn't sell on any of the big dumps). So what to do? What's a sensible plan for anyone that's looking to buy or add to a current position. If it was me I'd buy at least 50% right here, get it over and done with. But it does all depend on one's time horizon. If you believe in BSV, sorry I mean BTC, hahaha, then it might not pay to try and get cute, trying to get the best price possible because what happens if that doesn't happen and this time next week we're at $14k or even higher? Therefore it might actually be better to bite the full bullet, buy all your allocation right here and understand there's a chance that you've just bought a short term high. Timing is often a real bitch and even the very best get the timing wrong more times than you'd think. Focus on the long term, not the price of today or even next year. Another strategy is to split your total purchase into 50 or 100 bit size pieces and buy everyday for 50-100 days to get an average price. If prices move higher you'll average a lower price than the next high. If prices are currently around a short term high, you'll get a much lower average than the current price over the next 50-100 days. Or buy 50% here and the other 50% over that 50-100 days. I use Coinbase here in the UK and they can handle tiny orders. So again, THE hardest question in Bitcoin right now is when and where to buy because if you haven't already worked it out Bitcoin is being slowly cornered and there's been no corner like it in history. This is because anything that's been cornered in the past always had the possibility that the corner could be broken via an Exchange or government intervention, or because some hidden supply turned up (the cornerer got played). But with Bitcoin we don't just know what the total supply is, we know that with 1000% accuracy. Plus, impossible for any Exchange or government to intervene...
[CW: emotional outpouring] I (22 y.o.) just found out that my cousin, who visited us last night to drink with my brother (29 y.o.), tested positive for COVID-19. I am currently living with my mother (57 y.o.) and her boyfriend (55 y.o.) supposedly to hide from the pandemic that's currently on our doorstep. I want to blame people. Isn't that natural? I mean, I have grown hoarse admonishing my older brother for hosting family members in our house but he and my mum keep colluding to break all my quarantine precautions. Why? I don't know. Maybe it's in our blood to be disagreeable. Maybe it's because I'm the Weird Science Kid who does everything out of weirdness. No one listens to me in this house. I have lost all semblance of persuasion points ever since the pandemic started and now I can't get any of them back. (I would like to mention that we do not live in the US so this is not a Culture War-related thing. It's just that, I live in a third world country where "honor thy father and mother" is the national motto.) So, cool. My brother is the kind of person who has never taken any responsibility whatsoever for the consequences of his actions. He has weaseled his way out of child support and has somehow lived on allowances from his neverending stream of girlfriends since 2012. I get it. Maybe it's a coping thing, 'cause we both have ADHD but I'm the only one who bothered to get himself diagnosed. My mum and her boyfriend support us on a household income of $8200 a year. But y'know, economics is magic and somehow we have a roof over our heads with running water six days a week. I know why she's going with everything my brother is doing. Because...she's given up. In my country, when you fire someone you are bound by law to compensate them an amount that scales linearly with the amount of time they've been with the company. Unless the employee willingly resigns that is, so what a lot of employers do is to target employees who they want to quit until they give up. My mum, being almost of retirement age (which would entitle her to yet another round of compensation which her employer understandably doesn't want to pay) is currently undergoing this treatment, and has had five or six breakdowns in the last two weeks alone. So yeah, she doesn't have enough emotional bandwidth to deal with all this. And well, her boyfriend is dutifully keeping out of our squabbles because, hell, why the fuck do you need to discipline a 29 year old? Now, I didn't use to live with my family. Back in March, I had a place to myself, but the pandemic encroached too quickly and I had to flee. Was that irresponsible? Maybe. When I was five, my kidneys failed and my entire body swelled up like a balloon. Since then I've been in and out of clinics until I decided to take up swimming in college. That, plus my asthma has made me a care a little bit about my own prospects when push comes to shove. I have moved at least three more times since then, often within two hours of hearing about a gross violation of quarantine or a new case nearby. I have grown tired, and my savings are dwindling. But y'know, you gotta continue living so here we are. Now you might think, "OP, you're doing all right. You're a STEM major who knows how to code. Why don't you apply to remote jobs so you can keep yourself afloat?" The trouble is, I...never actually finished my degree. Instead, in my junior year I founded a startup. "Cool, so you're rich?" "Nope, but I did get a PC out of it." I'm sorry, folks. I didn't say I was good at money. Y'know, I even had the chance to invest 2000 USD on Bitcoin a couple of months before it went kaput but like most of you here, I failed. Let's think about my options here. On one hand, medicine marches constantly and there's going to be a huge financial incentive to figure out how to treat CFS after all this. Furthermore, there is a tiny but still nontrivial chance that we're going to solve longevity within our lifetimes, so what's 25-30 years of suffering for potentially thousands of years, right? On the other hand, there's eleventy-seven reasons why you can't be part of that Eternal 10000. Stem cell therapy today costs up to $50000/year and it's not like we have powerful financial incentives pointed at living longer. And the thing is, I'm seeing inpatient COVID-19 costs here hovering around $40 000 per individual. There are three of us in the house who are highly susceptible, and to be honest with meager salaries even ONE case is enough to bankrupt all of us . So anyway, two years ago I left my previous startup to look for greener pastures. I found it in February, when someone believed in me enough to (angel) invest in me! So I founded a new startup because I have to make him whole, right? Let's face it, I still live in a third-world country. No matter how smart I am or how good I am at programming, the fact that I haven't finished my degree means I'll have a decades-long uphill battle to immigrate to a decent country AND that's if I'm going to be healthy after all this is over. Who's going to hire a doubly disabled person who can't work long hours?  It's feels so...wrong writing out all this. I'm supposed to be stoic, y'know. Founders are supposed to be an unstoppable force, or else we're whiny asses who probably can't do anything right if our life depended on it. In Silicon Valley, there's this weird, unspoken sense that everything you do can be used against you. "The best founders are X, the most successful startups are Y"—implying that if you're neither X nor Y you should probably just go home. There are always these slots you have to fill and character traits you have to have so VCs can trust that you can build a billion-dollar business with their money. I mean, you can't really blame them because they are moving a lot of money. VCs are pattern matchers: no one wants to waste >6 zeros on their term sheet for coke and not much else, and the less risk they need to deal with the better. So imagine a choice between someone like me and an earnest suburban kid who's lived all his life in California and went to an Ivy League and had access to a proper hospital during the worst pandemic in recent memory. Of course you'll pick that kid. I'd pick him if I were in their shoes. Paul Graham once distilled the worst founders into one trait: hapless. The inability to control one's environment, the complacency of letting the world have its way with you. And so by implication being the opposite, i.e., being relentlessly resourceful, is the mark of a great founder. But what if your challenge is big enough for the history books? What if it's the mental and physical deterioration of everyone you hold dear? What if shit doesn't just happen, it keeps happening day after day and there's a hungry wolf stalking you and you still have to deal with the faceless bureaucracy of the USCIS and then run a startup on top of all this during a recession? What if...some people just aren't destined to participate in certain parts of the economy? Wouldn't that make things simpler? In the spirit of having retaining some semblance of agency, I have outlined the possible paths I can take before I hit rock bottom:
continue megadosing on Vitamin D on my own, and hope that some science still replicate
use up my remaining savings and (irresponsibly) find an apartment where I can self-isolate within the next 72 hours
take the odds and OODA the shit out of my post-corona life
And if none of these work, well, maybe we just can't tsuyoku naritai the shit out of everything. : Does my mum have health insurance? Yes, from the government. Is the government currently dissolving said health department due to corruption? You bet. : I'm really sorry if this is incoherent, but to be clear: I'm oscillating between founding a company and getting a proper job. The reason why the latter is such a difficult option to take is because ADHD and entrepreneurship go together like salt and fries, and I'm >85% confident that it's going to be really difficult for me to survive in an office environment based on how I know I work.
This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/ Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners? And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess. First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
You the HODLer should be the one who controls where your money goes. Your keys, your coins.
You the HODLer should be able to coordinate and make contracts with other people regarding your funds.
You the HODLer should be able to do the above without anyone watching over your shoulder and judging you.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so). So, how does Taproot affect those principles?
Taproot and Your /Coins
Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash). (technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input). However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits! Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh? With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save! And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well! (P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1) Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service! So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win! (even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot) And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!
Taproot and Your Contracts
No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade. So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust. Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade. However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade. In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address. Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants). But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer). Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos). (technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).
Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo
Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code. This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded. And you can do that, with HTLCs, today. Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Privacy. Everyone scraping the Bitcoin blockchain can see any HTLCs, and preimages used to claim them.
This can be mitigated by using offchain techniques so HTLCs are never published onchain in the happy case. Lightning would probably in practice be the easiest way to do this offchain. Of course, there are practical limits to what you can pay on Lightning. If you are buying something expensive, then Lightning might not be practical. For example, the "software" you are activating is really the firmware of a car, and what you are buying is not the software really but the car itself (with the activation of the car firmware being equivalent to getting the car keys).
Even offchain techniques need an onchain escape hatch in case of unresponsiveness! This means that, if something bad happens during payment, the HTLC might end up being published onchain anyway, revealing the fact that some special contract occurred.
And an HTLC that is claimed with a preimage onchain will also publicly reveal the preimage onchain. If that preimage is really the activation key of a software than it can now be pirated. If that preimage is really the activation key for your newly-bought cryptographic car --- well, not your keys, not your car!
Trust requirement. You are trusting the developer that it gives you the hash of an actual valid activation key, without any way to validate that the activation key hidden by the hash is actually valid.
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar". Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given public key to you. Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige). (Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key). So:
Privacy: PTLCs are private even if done onchain. Nobody else can learn what the private key behind the public key is, except you who knows the adaptor signature that when combined with the complete onchain signature lets you know what the private key of the activation key is. Somebody scraping the blockchain will not learn the same information even if all PTLCs are done onchain!
Lightning is still useful for reducing onchain use, and will also get PTLCs soon after Taproot is activated, but even if something bad happens and a PTLC has to go onchain, it doesn't reveal anything!
Trust issues can be proven more easily with a public-private keypair than with a hash-preimage pair.
For example, the developer of the software you are buying could provide a signature signing a message saying "unlock access to the full version for 1 day". You can check if feeding this message and signature to the program will indeed unlock full-version access for 1 day. Then you can check if the signature is valid for the purported pubkey whose private key you will pay for. If so, you can now believe that getting the private key (by paying for it in a PTLC) would let you generate any number of "unlock access to the full version for 1 day" message+signatures, which is equivalent to getting full access to the software indefinitely.
For the car, the manufacturer can show that signing a message "start the engine" and feeding the signature to the car's fimrware will indeed start the engine, and maybe even let you have a small test drive. You can then check if the signature is valid for the purported pubkey whose privkey you will pay for. If so, you can now believe that gaining knowledge of the privkey will let you start the car engine at any time you want.
(pedantry: the signatures need to be unique else they could be replayed, this can be done with a challenge-response sequence for the car, where the car gathers entropy somehow (it's a car, it probably has a bunch of sensors nowadays so it can get entropy for free) and uses the gathered entropy to challenge you to sign a random number and only start if you are able to sign the random number; for the software, it could record previous signatures somewhere in the developer's cloud server and refuse to run if you try to replay a previously-seen signature.)
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script. (technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)
Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable?? Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not. It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash. When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key. So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key. (public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL) And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions. So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort. Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers. For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
Current quantum computers can barely crack prime factorization problem for primes of 5 bits.
The 256-bit elliptic curve use by Bitcoin is, by my (possibly wrong) understanding, equivalent to 4096-bit primes, so you can see a pretty big gap between now (5 bit primes) and what is needed (4096 bit primes).
A lot of financial non-Bitcoin systems use the equivalent of 3072-bit primes or less, and are probably easier targets to crack than the equivalent-to-4096-bit-primes Bitcoin.
Quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin are still far off.
Pay-to-public-key-hash is not as protective as you might think.
We will probably see banks get cracked before Bitcoin, so the banking system is a useful canary-in-a-coal-mine to see whether we should panic about being quantum vulnerable.
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).
If you are a singlesig HODL-only Bitcoin user, Taproot will not affect you positively or negatively. Importantly: Taproot does no harm!
If you use or intend to use multisig, Taproot will be a positive for you.
If you transact onchain regularly using typical P2PKH/P2WPKH addresses, you get a minor reduction in feerates since multisig users will likely switch to Taproot to get smaller tx sizes, freeing up blockspace for yours.
If you are using multiparticipant setups for special systems of trade, Taproot will be a positive for you.
Remember: Lightning channels are multipartiicpiant setups for special systems of lightning-fast offchain trades!
I Wanna Be The Taprooter!
So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!
If you have developer experience especially in C, C++, or related languages
Review the Taproot code! There is one pull request in Bitcoin Core, and one in libsecp256k1. I deliberately am not putting links here, to avoid brigades of nontechnical but enthusiastic people leaving pointless reviews, but if you are qualified you know how to find them!
But I am not a cryptographeBitcoin Core contributomathematician/someone as awesome as Pieter Wuille
That's perfectly fine! The cryptographers have been over the code already and agree the math is right and the implementation is right. What is wanted is the dreary dreary dreary software engineering: are the comments comprehensive and understandable? no misspellings in the comments? variable names understandable? reasonable function naming convention? misleading coding style? off-by-one errors in loops? conditions not covered by tests? accidental mixups of variables with the same types? missing frees? read-before-init? better test coverage of suspicious-looking code? missing or mismatching header guards? portability issues? consistent coding style? you know, stuff any coder with a few years of experience in coding anything might be able to catch. With enough eyes all bugs are shallow!
If you are running a mining pool/mining operation/exchange/custodial service/SPV server
Be prepared to upgrade!
One of the typical issues with upgrading software is that subtle incompatibilities with your current custom programs tend to arise, disrupting operations and potentially losing income due to downtime. If so, consider moving to the two-node setup suggested by gmax, which is in the last section of my previous post. With this, you have an up-to-date "public" node and a fixed-version "private" node, with the public node protecting the private node from any invalid chainsplits or invalid transactions. Moving to this setup from a typical one-node setup should be smooth and should not disrupt operations (too much).
If you are running your own fullnode for fun or for your own wallet
Be prepared to upgrade! The more nodes validating the new rules (even if you are a non-mining node!), the safer every softfork will be!
If you are using an SPV wallet or custodial wallet/service (including hardware wallets using the software of the wallet provider)
Contact your wallet provider / SPV server and ask for a statement on whether they support Taproot, and whether they are prepared to upgrade for Taproot! Make it known to them that Taproot is something you want!
But I Hate Taproot!!
Raise your objections to Taproot now, or forever hold your peace! Maybe you can raise them here and some of the devs (probably nullc, he goes everywhere, even in rbtc!) might be able to see your objections! Or if your objections are very technical, head over to the appropriate pull request and object away!
Maybe you simply misunderstand something, and we can clarify it here!
Or maybe you do have a good objection, and we can make Taproot better by finding a solution for it!
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HASH WARS!!! The Bitcoin Cash Fork Aftermath… What Happens Now?
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