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WTF Happened in 1971?

In a recent spillover of internet-based long-form intellectual new media into the mainstream, Eric Weinstein appeared as a guest on Ted Cruz's podcast. Eric was well prepared. Cruz played the role of a charitable and engaged critic while avoiding direct confrontation.
The conservation laid bare the intersection of the anti-corporate socialist left and anti-government libertarian right and the potential of these forces as a combined political interest. There was a strong sense of shared acknowledgement of the current crisis and they touched on all the culture war aspects. But I'm more interested in what Eric has pointed to now several times as the root cause of the systemic decline, and what seems to be the original trigger for the slow decay and building of tension that has ultimately led to the rise of darker elements on both the left and right that we see today: a Great Decoupling of productivity (GDP) and wage growth in the early 1970's. The significance of this time period has also been highlighted by Eric's boss, Peter Thiel.
We are referred to https://wtfhappenedin1971.com/, where a collection of charts give the impression that a profound change in the foundations of the economy took place, effectively causing a divergence of all kinds of metrics related to equality, wealth creation, the complexity of regulation, and implicitly downstream effects like political polarization, incarceration rates, and age of marriage.
The simple, seemingly persuasive answer is that the effective cancellation of the gold standard set us on a path towards borrowing ever larger sums to avert financial crises as they arise, and the return to a currency backed by something provably scarce, i.e. bitcoin, is a solution.
I can't say I'm convinced it's that simple. And Eric doesn't mention currency specifically as the problem.
So what I want to know is, was 1971 a real inflection point, the real root of inequality and dysfunction we see today? Was the removal of limits on the Fed's ability to print money a mistake? Or was there some other government action or change at that time that was the real cause? Do we need to let stock market crashes happen from time to time?
A year ago, u/gwern posted a 1986 Atlantic article that described a lot of the problems in black America that are still around 4 decades later and offered more in the way of nuance and insight than most of the discourse we see today. What struck me on revisiting it was how the timing of the decline of Chicago aligns with the early 1970's trigger hypothesis:
In 1970 thirty-seven percent of the population of the area was below the poverty line; in 1980 the figure was 51 percent. In 1970 the unemployment rate was 9.5 percent; in 1980 it was 24.2 percent. In 1970 forty percent of the residents of the neighborhood lived in families with a female head; in 1980 the number had grown to 72 percent. In 1980 of the 54,000 residents 33,000 were on welfare. Experts agree that all of the numbers are even worse today.
My mental model for social issues is that they are mostly rooted in economics. If you have a society that generates wealth, you can pay teachers, doctors, and police well enough to attract competent candidates and the competition necessary to create real expertise. You can afford to build and maintain good infrastructure and spend time on figuring out how to best help the disadvantaged. You have the resources to advance technology and support the arts. You get all the positive feedback loops that come with this.
When wealth generation becomes concentrated and restricted, public institutions start to struggle, people feel they have less opportunity, and social issues start to bubble up like the formation of outgroups of all kinds. A massive oversimplifation, I know, but a useful general framework to approaching issues that avoids (mis)placing blame on cultural degeneracy, "evil" corporations, or other common scapegoats that are largely symptoms of greater problems.
Today, this mindset seems to align with the conservative right, but in the 1986 article it's the "liberal answer" to the problem of ghettos that I identify with:
In Chicago the harbinger of the change was the closing in the late fifties of the stockyards, which for half a century were the sine qua non of lower-class grunt work and a heavy employer of blacks. Chicago lost 200,000 jobs in the seventies; small shut-down redbrick factories that used to make products like boxes and ball bearings dot the city, especially the West Side. The lack of jobs, the argument continues, caused young men in the ghetto to adopt a drifting, inconstant life; to turn to crime; to engage in exaggeratedly macho behavior -- acting tough, not studying, bullying women for money -- as a way to get the sense of male strength that their fathers had derived from working and supporting families. As Murray believes that one simple step, ending all welfare programs, would heal the ghettos, the unemployment school believes that another simple step, jobs, would heal them. "When there's a demand for the participation of the black underclass in the labor force, most of the so-called problems people talk about will evaporate in a generation," says John McKnight. an urban-research professor at Northwestern University.
Indeed, Mr. McKnight. And up until this spring, it looked like the Trump presidency's aggressively pro-jobs and pro-American workers policy was showing promise of vindicating this view - the presence of BLM and racial tensions leading up to 2016 had all but subsided by 2018-2019. I wonder just how little backlash the George Floyd incident would have caused if the pandemic hadn't undone the economic progress of the past 3 years.
Mind you, that "progress" was but a tiny step in the right direction in terms of improving wages and opportunities for the lowest earners. And for all the times the "audit the fed" meme hit the top of the_donald, it now seems impossible that the current administration has any capability or willingness to take the drastic steps needed to address the real root cause that apparently started 50 years ago. To do that, we may need an actual revolution.
submitted by curious-b to TheMotte [link] [comments]

My 2019 curated list of articles, resources and links on programming, math and computer science.

Hi /compsci!
Every year I bookmark many websites, tutorials and articles on mostly programming, math, technology and computer science. I go through them all in the end of the year and curate the best, unique and interesting stuff to make a list for myself (and discard the others).
I hope some will benefit you, ignite your interests further in computer science or find something interesting to read and learn. Enough talk, let's get to the meat!
Mods, in case this violates any guidelines please remove it and if possible tell me the best subreddit to post.
Raising a glass or two for 2020! Thank you and have fun!
submitted by sudoankit to compsci [link] [comments]

List of Scott's most influential twitter followers

It seems like Scott/SSC has gotten much more mainstream recognition over the past year, so I was curious to know who the most influential SSC readers are now. Using twitter follower data for this isn't perfect (follower count is not a perfect proxy for influence, not all SSC readers follow the twitter account, etc.), but it's the best I could think of and I figured it would be a fun exercise regardless.
As an aside, a few interesting stats I learned about Scott's twitter followers (scraped on 12/30/17):
  1. Scott is followed by exactly two members of Congress: Justin Amash (Republican) and Jim Himes (Democrat)
  2. Scott has 351 bluecheck followers
  3. Of the top 100 most-followed followers, the gender breakdown (by my count) is 82 men vs 8 women (along with 10 organization or anonymous accounts). Among the top 50, it's 43 men and 1 woman (Liv Boeree)
  4. 385 followers (2% of the total) have bios including either "bitcoin", "ethereum", "crypto" or "blockchain"
  5. There are 67 followers whose bios include either "@Google", "@ Google", "at Google", or "Googler"
Note: When constructing the top 100 below, I excluded accounts that had extremely large Following counts, since I wanted the list to just consist of (likely) actual SSC readers. My exact rule was to exclude any account that follows >20K, include any that follows <10K, and include accounts in the 10K-20K range iff their following/follower ratio was less than 10% (this last condition was mostly just because I wanted to keep @pmarca on the list).
Anyway, below is the top 100. I also constructed lists for Eliezer, Robin Hanson, and gwern, and I can post those in the comments if anyone's interested.
Ranking Twitter Name Full Name Bio Bluecheck Follower Count Following Count
1 @NateSilver538 Nate Silver Editor-in-Chief, @FiveThirtyEight. Author, The Signal and the Noise (http://amzn.to/QdyFYV). Sports/politics/food geek. 1 2860782 1051
2 @ezraklein Ezra Klein Founder and editor-at-large, http://Vox.com. Come work with us! http://bit.ly/1ToAmQ8 1 2277052 1112
3 @timoreilly Tim O'Reilly Founder and CEO, O'Reilly Media. Watching the alpha geeks, sharing their stories, helping the future unfold. 1 1988716 1829
4 @paulg Paul Graham 1 1066366 322
5 @SamHarrisOrg Sam Harris Author of The End of Faith, The Moral Landscape, Waking Up, and other bestselling books published in over 20 languages. Host of the Waking Up… 1 974855 229
6 @techreview MIT Tech Review MIT Technology Review equips its audiences with the intelligence to understand a world shaped by technology. 1 794095 3367
7 @pmarca Marc Andreessen 1 672740 16319
8 @cdixon Chris Dixon programming, philosophy, history, internet, startups, investing 1 572260 3320
9 @RealTimeWWII WW2 Tweets from 1939 I livetweet the 2nd World War, as it happened on this day in 1939 & for 6 years to come (2nd time around). Created by Alwyn Collinson,… 0 516803 459
10 @VitalikButerin Vitalik Buterin See https://about.me/vitalik_buterin 1 458582 154
11 @Tribeca Tribeca Great stories from the greatest storytellers. 1 409581 18678
12 @bhorowitz Ben Horowitz Author of Ben's Blog (http://www.bhorowitz.com) and HarperBusiness book, THE HARD THING ABOUT HARD THINGS http://www.amazon.com/Hard-Thing-About-Things-Building-ebook/dp/B00DQ845EA/ref=sr_1_1… 1 405820 255
13 @mattyglesias Matthew Yglesias Fake news. Bad takes. Dad jokes. We’re actually on the Bad Place. 1 372341 754
14 @naval Naval Present. 0 339469 478
15 @SwiftOnSecurity SwiftOnSecurity I make stupid jokes, talk systems security, https://DecentSecurity.com + http://GotPhish.com, write Scifi, sysadmin, & use Oxford commas. Sprezzatura. 0 211672 7530
16 @alexismadrigal Alexis C. Madrigal staff writer @TheAtlantic in the real world, these just people with ideas Mexican, Oakland, Earthseed 1 203540 5682
17 @ScottAdamsSays Scott Adams Win Bigly: http://amzn.to/2myAGon 1 202042 788
18 @Khanoisseur Adam Khan Majordomo; Stuff at @Google @Twitter @SpaceX @Apple Exposing Trump https://www.gofundme.com/VolunteerJournalism… *Turn notifications on for breaking Trump… 0 183964 9359
19 @felixsalmon Felix Salmon Host and editor, Cause & Effect 1 180414 1832
20 @fmanjoo Farhad Manjoo (feat. Drake) NYT. DMs are open. signal: 4156836738. [email protected]. Instagram/Snapchat: fmanjoo 1 167592 4095
21 @VsauceTwo Vsauce2 Being Human. personal twitter: @kevleeb 0 151795 279
22 @russian_market Russian Market Swiss Financial Blogger. In Bitcoin we trust. 1 148866 939
23 @AaronDayAtlas Aaron Day CEO @Salucorp, Chairman @stark_360. #entrepreneur #btc #blockchain #healthcare #paleo #tech #dad Former candidate for #USSenate #ENTJ 0 133389 2075
24 @justinamash Justin Amash I defend #liberty and explain every vote at http://facebook.com/justinamash • 'Laws must be general, equal, and certain.' —F.A. Hayek 1 131997 5376
25 @Liv_Boeree Liv Boeree Poker player & Team Pokerstars Pro. Physics creature. Aspiring rationalist. Mountain goat. [email protected] 1 125366 451
26 @MaxCRoser Max Roser Researcher @UniOfOxford – Follow me for data visualizations of long-term trends of living standards – mostly from my web publication: http://www.OurWorldinData.org 1 114045 583
27 @Jonathan_Blow Jonathan Blow Game designer of Braid and The Witness. Partner in IndieFund. 0 112827 68
28 @andrewchen Andrew Chen Growth: @uber. Writer: http://andrewchen.co. Plus one: @briannekimmel 0 111077 6288
29 @charlescwcooke Charles C. W. Cooke Editor of National Review Online. Classical liberal. Immigrant. Jack’s Dad. Wino. ‘The American is the Englishman left to himself.’ 1 110071 872
30 @AlanEyre1 Alan Eyre Diplomat, U.S. State Dept, Energy Resources Bureau. Middle East/Asia Energy; ایران. RT doesn't =endorsement; 'likes' don't necessarily=likes, often… 1 106947 3514
31 @karpathy Andrej Karpathy Director of AI at Tesla. Previously a Research Scientist at OpenAI, and CS PhD student at Stanford. I like to train Deep Neural Nets on large datasets. 1 106643 445
32 @JamesADamore James Damore Nerd centrist interested in open discussions and improving the world by fixing perverse incentive structures. Author of the pro-diversity … 1 94580 210
33 @SherwoodStrauss Ethan Strauss Podcasting 1 88258 1204
34 @james_clear James Clear Author, weightlifter and travel photographer in 25+ countries. Over 400,000 people subscribe to my weekly newsletter on how to build better habits. 1 87968 218
35 @nk from the future Wealth and personal achievement expert 0 81712 591
36 @benthompson Ben Thompson AuthoFounder of @stratechery. Host of @exponentfm. @notechben for sports. @monkbent on other networks. Home on the Internet. 1 78746 1267
37 @matthewherper Matthew Herper Forbes reporter covering science and medicine 1 78698 2111
38 @JeremyCMorgan Jeremy Morgan Tech Blogger, Hacker, Pluralsight Author, and Volunteer Firefighter. Once held the world record for being the youngest person alive 0 78601 7365
39 @balajis Balaji S. Srinivasan CEO (http://Earn.com) and Board Partner (@a16z). I hear this Bitcoin thing might be kind of a big deal. You can reach me at http://earn.com/balajis. 1 70707 2936
40 @patrickc Patrick Collison Fallibilist, optimist. Stripe CEO. 1 68709 1875
41 @matthew_d_green Matthew Green I teach cryptography at Johns Hopkins. 0 68434 594
42 @delong Brad DeLong 🖖🏻 I'm trying to be smart, knowledgable, funny, and well-wishing. You try too--at least 2 of 4. Low volume: 1+ per day... 0 67968 1578
43 @flantz Frank Lantz game designer 0 66090 278
44 @MYSTIQUEWEST MYSTIQUE NYC The Mystique Gentlemen’s Strip Club offers the best in adult entertainment in New York City. With unique stage design, full bars and the most beautiful dancers. 0 64881 332
45 @AceofSpadesHQ TheOne&OnlyExpert I'm not #TheExpert, or the expert parodying #TheExpert. I'm the real expert. 0 64872 1464
46 @btaylor Bret Taylor President, Chief Product Officer of @Salesforce. Previously CEO Quip, CTO Facebook, CEO FriendFeed, co-creator Google Maps. Stanford fan, @Twitter… 1 64829 687
47 @wycats Yehuda Katz Tilde Co-Founder, OSS enthusiast and world traveler. 1 63933 849
48 @jahimes Jim Himes Connecticut Congressman. Reader. Runner. Swimmer. And I make maple syrup. 1 62820 411
49 @abnormalreturns Tadas Viskanta Financial Educator, Author and Editor of Abnormal Returns. 0 61693 413
50 @BrendanNyhan Brendan Nyhan @Dartmouth political science professor, @UpshotNYT contributor, and @BrightLineWatch co-organizer. Before: @CJR / Spinsanity / All the President'… 1 61508 6149
51 @matt_levine Matt Levine da, wo Menschen arbeiten, wird es immer Fehler geben 1 61314 990
52 @BretWeinstein Bret Weinstein Professor in Exile If we don't harness evolution, it will harness us. 1 61049 536
53 @gaberivera Gabe Rivera Blame me for @Techmeme and @mediagazer. Nicer than my tweets. Often sarcastic. DMs are open. 2+2â‰5. Retweets are endorphins. 1 59927 5599
54 @SarahTheHaider Sarah Haider Promotes free-speech, human rights, liberalism, atheism. Director of Outreach,Ex-Muslims of North America. Pakistani by birth, American by… 0 59574 292
55 @TheInfinite_T ✨Infinite_T✨ NSFW Send GoogleWallet to [email protected] pls send all your tokens to http://mfc.im/infinite_t/t Wishlist: http://a.co/8taURYD 0 59061 645
56 @cblatts Chris Blattman Political economist studying conflict, crime, and poverty, and @UChicago Professor @HarrisPolicy and @PearsonInst. I blog at … 0 57670 2445
57 @jamestaranto James Taranto Editorial Features Editor, in charge of @WSJ op-ed pages. Best of the Web columnist 2000-17. 1 56733 174
58 @nitashatiku Nitasha Tiku Senior writer @Wired covering Silicon Valley [email protected], DM for Signal 1 56133 4327
59 @DKThomp Derek Thompson Writer at @TheAtlantic. Author of HIT MAKERS. Talker on NPR's @hereandnow. Economics of work and play. derek[at]theatlantic[dot]com 1 53387 1116
60 @aliamjadrizvi Ali A. Rizvi Pakistani-Canadian author of The Atheist Muslim (SMP/Macmillan). Amazon order link below. Co-host of @SecularJihadist podcast. Contact:… 1 52806 784
61 @RameshPonnuru Ramesh Ponnuru @NRO, @BV, @AEI, @CBS. Husband of @aprilponnuru. 1 51721 613
62 @JYuter Rabbi Josh Yuter "For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways" Is. 55:8. Jewish stuff + bad jokes. All opinions subject to change. 1 50731 2599
63 @meganphelps Megan Phelps-Roper “You're just a human being, my dear, sweet child.” Speaking requests: [email protected] Contact: [email protected] 1 49678 792
64 @albertwenger Albert Wenger VC at http://usv.com 1 49107 1794
65 @paulbloomatyale Paul Bloom Psychologist who studies and writes about human nature—including morality, pleasure, and religion 1 48579 391
66 @conor64 Conor Friedersdorf Staff writer at The Atlantic, founding editor of The Best of Journalism–subscribe here: https://www.ponyexpress.io/subscribe/thebestofjournalism… 1 46977 1405
67 @EricRWeinstein Eric Weinstein Managing director @ Thiel Capital. Some assembly required. Spelling not included. May contain math. Tweets are my own. 1 46263 850
68 @adamdangelo Adam D'Angelo CEO of Quora 1 45545 526
69 @robbystarbuck Robby Starbuck Director + Producer + Founder at RSM Creative - Husband to @imatriarch - Dad to 3 Kids + 2 Dogs - Futurist - Cuban American - Fan of Civilized Debate 1 45308 1842
70 @clairlemon Claire Lehmann Principle before affiliation. Founder, editor http://quillette.com. Contact me at http://earn.com/clairelehmann 1 45305 2000
71 @tombennett71 Tom Bennett Director of researchED- https://researched.org.uk Chair of @educationgovuk Behaviour group. Free training available here http://www.tombennetttraining.co.uk 1 43859 3698
72 @m2jr Mike Maples The woods are lovely, dark and deep, But I have promises to keep,And miles to go before I sleep,And miles to go before I sleep.-Robert Frost 0 43629 3915
73 @DavidDidau David Didau Education writer and speaker. Ginger. #PsychBook OUT NOW! https://goo.gl/xyDIjO; #WrongBook still available: http://amzn.to/1Opyach 0 43531 1092
74 @ByronTau Byron Tau congress et al. for @wsj. interested in law, lobbying, nat'l security, investigations, gov't ethics and . contact me securely: http://bit.ly/2s2HTfG 1 43026 2699
75 @MichaelKitces MichaelKitces One nerd’s perspective on the financial planning world… CFP, #LifelongLearner, Entrepreneur-In-Denial, Advisor #FinTech, & publisher of the Nerd’s Eye View blog 1 42304 459
76 @rahulkapil Rahul Kapil Come to observe. Stay to play. 0 41987 975
77 @michaelbatnick Irrelevant Investor Long-distance reader 0 41620 1076
78 @yegg Gabriel Weinberg CEO & Founder, @DuckDuckGo. Co-author, Traction. I want to publish zines and rage against machines. DM for Signal. 1 39470 151
79 @Jesse_Livermore Jesse Livermore Trader, Speculator, Bucketeer 0 39190 4459
80 @iconominet ICONOMI Digital Assets Management Platform for the Decentralised Economy 0 39030 1942
81 @IKucukparlak İlker Küçükparlak Psikiyatrist http://ihtisastramvayi.com 0 38018 757
82 @vdare Virginia Dare The Twitter account for the editors of VDARE. Featured at the 2016 Republican National Convention 0 37723 4429
83 @juliagalef Julia Galef SF-based writer & speaker focused on reasoning, judgment, and the future of humanity. Host of the Rationally Speaking podcast (@rspodcast) 1 37530 340
84 @nicknotned Nick Denton Internet publisher 1 36708 2524
85 @JeremyMcLellan Jeremy McLellan Standup Comedian, Papist-in-training, biryani extremist, alleged member of the Muslim Cousinhood, US ambassador to the Pindi Boyz, spy pigeon trainer 1 36253 1538
86 @collision John Collison Co-founder of @stripe. 0 35995 1290
87 @narcissawright ♕ Narcissa fledgling seer 1 35375 1266
88 @panzer Matthew Panzarino Editor-in-Chief, TechCrunch. Telecom stories killed: 0. PGP Key https://keybase.io/panzer 1 35162 2902
89 @EconTalker Russell Roberts How Adam Smith Can Change Your Life (http://amzn.to/1o72lYh), EconTalk host, econ novelist, co-creator of Keynes/Hayek rap videos, http://www.wonderfulloaf.org/ 0 34611 669
90 @nktpnd Ankit Panda Senior Editor @Diplomat_APAC in NYC. Thinking/writing/speaking on global security, politics, and economics. Via @WilsonSchool. Views mine & RTâ‰â€¦ 1 34041 995
91 @Official_Quame Kwame A. A Opoku Futurist• Global Business Speaker, Founder @fobaglobal, @wefestafrica, @ideafactorylive • CEO Mary&Mary LLC • Entrepreneur • Tedx Speaker •Influencer 0 33924 3526
92 @dylanmatt Dylan Matthews I know, I know, I don't like me either. Retweets are proposals of marriage. 1 33262 5579
93 @Jonnymagic00 Jon Finkel I'm a magic player who also manages a hedge fund. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jon_Finkel 0 33234 284
94 @Heminator Mark Hemingway "After all these years of professional experience, why can’t I write good?" Senior Writer @WeeklyStandard. Husband of @MZHemingway. 1 33034 4877
95 @sweenzor Onson Sweemey 0 32044 5288
96 @PhilosophersEye Philosopher's Eye Philosophy updates, pop culture, fun stuff, and links to resources from the Wiley Blackwell Philosophy Team. 0 31931 6503
97 @VladZamfir Vlad Zamfir Absurdist, troll. 0 31764 418
98 @m_clem Michael Clemens Fellow @[email protected]_bonn. My views only. Assoc. Editor @JPopEcon & @WorldDevJournal. Author of @WallsofNations, coming in 2018.… 1 31746 3650
99 @RudyHavenstein Rudolf E. Havenstein ReichsBank®President 1908-1923; Central Bank consultant. 'My way of joking is to tell the truth' - GB Shaw. Tweets solely for my own amusemen… 0 31115 1293
100 @tikhon Tikhon Bernstam CEO & Founder of Parse (YC S'11, acquired by Facebook for $85M in 2013). Founder @Scribd (YC S'06). @ycombinator alum. 0 31030 5184
submitted by disumbrationist to slatestarcodex [link] [comments]

Moronic Monday - It's your weekly stupid questions thread. Please upvote for visibility. I receive no karma for this post.

Hey /SilkRoad , it is time for Moronic Monday!
Post your question - stupid or otherwise - here to get an answer. Anyone can post a question and the community as a whole is invited and encouraged to provide an answer. Many questions get submitted late each week that don't get a lot of action, so if your question didn't get answered before, feel free to post it again.
I do ask that you refrain from abusing noobs in this thread. Feel free to link to guides, wikis, forums, other subreddits (particularly /bitcoin and /drugs [though many on the Bitcoin subreddit don't take real kindly to SR]), or the FAQ, though.
The Chinese scammer is still doing his thing here. They'll be using a rotating array of URL shorteners to evade reddit's spam filters. This scam's site is called emocoe (also bitswing and bitcoinestore [not to be confused with the legitimate bitcoinstore]), and they are doing the same thing: claiming to offer bitcoin for far under market value in exchange for Paypal or debit or whatever. No legitimate exchange does this. Please report it when you see it. Your reports make deleting it much easier, and train reddit's spam filter to start catching the URL shorteners.
iam_Astrid is joining us as a mod in order to assist with CSS stuff.
Useful resources:
http://erowid.org
http://dkn255hz262ypmii.onion
http://dkn255hz262ypmii.onion/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page
reddit.com/Drugs
reddit.com/askdrugs
reddit.com/SilkRoadDeals
reddit.com/nootropics
http://gwern.net
The sidebar -----
Fire away!
submitted by RacistConspiracy to SilkRoad [link] [comments]

The evolution of Distributed Ledger Technologies - Part 1

Understanding really something means that you need to look at how it was created and how it has evolved.
Blockchain technology was not created out of nowhere or overnight from an anonymous crazy inventor called Satoshi Nakamoto, as some may believe. It was the outcome of collective human innovation through a very strange set of circumstances that would set the setting stone for a new decentralized movement and a new and better concept of money. To grasp ahold of the origin of Bitcoin and the Distributed Ledger Technologies, or plainly laid out “Blockchain” in modern online literature, one has to look at the history and the combined influence of 4 elements, Cryptography, Open Source Software, Peer to Peer Sharing Networks, Crypto-Economics.

Part 1 - Introduction to Cryptography

Cryptography is about solving the problem of transmitting information fast, securely and covertly to an audience. The problem arose as new technology increased the potential of communication and the danger from information being stolen. In the 1930s and during the World War II encryption and cryptography boomed as a result of military research and development, that would provide a competitive advantage and eventually greatly assist by breaking almost every German and Japanese code. Formal information security and electronic surveillance organizations would then be born and continue to this day, such as the NSA.

Military Enigma machine, model \"Enigma I\", used during the late 1930s and during the war; displayed at Museo scienza e tecnologia Milano, Italy.

Pioneering cryptographers were James Ellis and Clifford Cocks with their public key encryption idea. An encrypted message would contain the key that would enable unlocking the encryption, however the idea was not at that point feasible as it entailed a public communications network such as the internet as a foundation. These systems were not yet available to the public in the 1970s.
Additionally, David Chaum, was the first to propose cryptocurrency in 1983, in a paper called “Numbers can be a better form of cash than paper” as well as other ideas like untraceable electronic mail, digital signatures and digital secret identities.

The Rise of the Cypherpunks

With the emergence of the internet, by the 1990s’ a new movement called Cypherpunks was born. These people wanted to use the encryption tools developed by the military-industrial complex to protect individuals and their privacy.
In early 1991, a U.S. Senate legislation had a proposal that would force electronic communications service providers to hand over individuals’ private messages. A little known programmer called Phil Zimmerman decided to develop a tool that would help individuals freely communicate on the internet. Concerned that the American government would soon require service providers to turn over its users’ communications, Phil developed the free software known as Pretty Good Privacy, or PGP, so that individuals could encrypt the contents of their own messages, texts and files. PGP quickly became the world’s most popular email-encryption software and one of the world’s first examples of public key encryption to gain any kind of widespread adoption. It was notably used by Edward Snowden to secretly transfer classified documents from the NSA to journalist Glenn Greenwald in 2012.

NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden in a still image taken from video during an interview.

In late 1992, Eric Hughes, Tim May and John Gilmore invited twenty of their closest friends to an informal meeting to discuss programming and cryptographic issues. This meeting was then held monthly at John Gilmore’s company, Cygnus Solutions and as the group grew they decided to setup a mailing list to reach other people elsewhere and the Cypherpunks were already growing in numbers. The ideas and concepts shared in this mailing list varied from cryptography, mathematics, computer science and political as well as philosophical debates, with privacy being one of the main founding principles.

“Privacy is necessary for an open society in the electronic age. Privacy is not secrecy. A private matter is something one doesn’t want the whole world to know, but a secret matter is something one doesn’t want anybody to know. Privacy is the power to selectively reveal oneself to the world.”

Early attempts of anonymous transaction systems that would introduce game theory and incentivised behaviour, was the Hashcash in 1997, by Dr. Adam Back, which was a system to prove that some computational power was spent to create a stamp in the header of an email, acting as an anti-spam mechanism, a concept that might sound familiar to the proof of Work use in Bitcoin.
In 1998, Wei Dai published his proposal for B-Money, which included two methods of maintaining transaction data, one in which all participants hold a separate database or ledger and a second in which a specific group only holds the database and are incentivized to act honestly as they have deposited their own money into a special account and stand to lose it by acting dishonestly, also known as the “Proof of Stake” method. Ethereum is one of the cryptocurrencies considering to move to this method of transaction verification since it provides efficiency benefits.
In 2004, Hal Finney created the Reusable Proofs of Work based on the principles of Hashcash, which were unique cryptographic tokens you could only spend once, but were limited to validation and protection against double spending from a central server. In 2005 Nick Szabo gave his own proposal for BitGold, a system which units would be valued differently based upon the amount of computational work performed to create them.

https://preview.redd.it/kx6psm0vfgj11.jpg?width=1067&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=3d72dc76341c76dc671a0f6e46f9a98acc6d0179
Finally, in 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto, a pseudonym for a still-unidentified individual or individuals, published the bitcoin whitepaper, citing both hashcash and b-money, addressing many of the problems that the earlier developers had faced, including double spending. The bitcoin white paper attracted a lot of criticism from sceptics, but Satoshi moved on despite the critics and mined the genesis block of Bitcoin on 3rd of January 2009.
See you in the next article!
I think that’s enough condensed knowledge for one article.
In the following article we’ll look at Open Source Software and study its influence in the development of Blockchain Technologies.

End of Part I

Originally published via Steemit: https://steemit.com/cryptography/@universalcrypto/the-evolution-of-distributed-ledger-technologies-or-blockchain-part-1-of-4
Sources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptography
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enigma_machine
https://www.activism.net/cypherpunk/manifesto.html
https://www.bitcoinwednesday.com/speakers/phil-zimmermann-creator-pgp-cypherpunk/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phil_Zimmermann
https://www.coindesk.com/the-rise-of-the-cypherpunks/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
http://www.hashcash.org/papers/announce.txt
http://www.weidai.com/bmoney.txt
https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf
http://www.gwern.net/docs/bitcoin/2008-nakamoto
https://medium.com/swlh/the-untold-history-of-bitcoin-enter-the-cypherpunks-f764dee962a1
submitted by GeorgeTProfit to cryptography [link] [comments]

Moronic Monday - It's your weekly stupid questions thread. Please upvote for visibility. I receive no karma for this post.

Hey /SilkRoad , it is time for Moronic Monday!
Post your question - stupid or otherwise - here to get an answer. Anyone can post a question and the community as a whole is invited and encouraged to provide an answer. Many questions get submitted late each week that don't get a lot of action, so if your question didn't get answered before, feel free to post it again.
I do ask that you refrain from abusing noobs in this thread. Feel free to link to guides, wikis, forums, other subreddits (particularly /bitcoin and /drugs [though many on the Bitcoin subreddit don't take real kindly to SR]), or the FAQ, though.
The Chinese scammer is still doing his thing here, and has kicked it into high gear. They'll be using a rotating array of URL shorteners to evade reddit's spam filters. This scam's site is called emocoe, and they are doing the same thing: claiming to offer bitcoin for far under market value in exchange for Paypal or debit or whatever. No legitimate exchange does this. Please report it when you see it. Your reports make deleting it much easier, and train reddit's spam filter to start catching the URL shorteners.
The official forums appear to be back up after a day of spottiness and downtime.
SpydaKrazy has left us to recover from a benzodiazepine issue. I don't think they'll be back. 8'|
Useful resources:
http://erowid.org
http://dkn255hz262ypmii.onion
http://dkn255hz262ypmii.onion/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page
reddit.com/Drugs
reddit.com/SilkRoadDeals
reddit.com/nootropics
http://gwern.net
The sidebar -----
Fire away!
submitted by RacistConspiracy to SilkRoad [link] [comments]

176 Moronic Monday - It's your weekly stupid questions thread. Please upvote for visibility. I receive no karma.

Hey /SilkRoad, it is time for Moronic Monday!
Post your question - stupid or otherwise - here to get an answer. Anyone can post a question and the community as a whole is invited and encouraged to provide an answer. Many questions get submitted late each week that don't get a lot of action, so if your question didn't get answered before, feel free to post it again.
I do ask that you refrain from abusing noobs in this thread. Feel free to link to guides, wikis, forums, other subreddits (particularly /bitcoin and /drugs [though many on the Bitcoin subreddit don't take real kindly to SR]), or the FAQ, though.
The Chinese scammer is still doing his thing here, and there's a new scammer on the official forums advertising for a supposed "Silk Road Advanced".
Also, Coachella420/InfiniteSource/boostintoHYPERSPACE/DealerofDrugs is at it again. He seems pretty pissed off at me again. I expect him to start the same nonsense again in this thread. I suppose it's easier to post here since you have to spam to 50 in the official forums, where he has also been banned.
Useful resources:
http://erowid.org
http://dkn255hz262ypmii.onion
http://dkn255hz262ypmii.onion/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page
reddit.com/Drugs
reddit.com/SilkRoadDeals
reddit.com/nootropics
http://gwern.net
The sidebar -----
Fire away!
submitted by RacistConspiracy to SilkRoad [link] [comments]

Moronic Monday - It's your weekly stupid questions thread. Please upvote for visibility. I receive no karma for this post.

Hey /SilkRoad , it is time for Moronic Monday!
Post your question - stupid or otherwise - here to get an answer. Anyone can post a question and the community as a whole is invited and encouraged to provide an answer. Many questions get submitted late each week that don't get a lot of action, so if your question didn't get answered before, feel free to post it again.
I do ask that you refrain from abusing noobs in this thread. Feel free to link to guides, wikis, forums, other subreddits (particularly /bitcoin and /drugs [though many on the Bitcoin subreddit don't take real kindly to SR]), or the FAQ, though.
Link semi-related:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5aeukmFc3sU
Also, I wanted to mention that scam attempts are ongoing in this subreddit. It's mostly the same guy, probably from China (based on the domain registrar) posting links to a fake Bitcoin exchange with a similar name to a legitimate bitcoin ecommerce site. The site claims to accept Paypal and debit/credit cards for Bitcoin, which no legitimate Bitcoin exchange does directly. He's using a rotating array of obscure URL shorteners to evade the automatic sitewide spam algorithm. His usernames are usually, but not always, gibberish, and usually, but not always, only used to post one comment or link. Some of you report it when you see it, and I'm thankful for that. Downvotes don't put things in the moderation queue, so please always report it when you see it. I delete and ban it when I see it and I know other mods do as well. There are other scams, but that's by far and away the most common one.
Another thing I want to mention is that you should never use onion.to for SR-related tasks. You lose all anonymity by going that route. Your ISP and/or your university IT department can tell exactly what you're looking at if you use it. Even if you visit onion.to using Tor, malicious Tor exist nodes could be used to compromise your anonymity. The Tor Browser Bundle is a seriously easy thing to install and use, and Orweb/Orbot is not much worse.
Useful resources:
http://erowid.org
http://dkn255hz262ypmii.onion
http://dkn255hz262ypmii.onion/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page
reddit.com/Drugs
reddit.com/SilkRoadDeals
reddit.com/nootropics
http://gwern.net
The sidebar -----
Fire away!
submitted by RacistConspiracy to SilkRoad [link] [comments]

The Bet: BMR and Sheep to die in a year

EDIT: No one has offered to accept any of the bets, so I am declaring this offer withdrawn.
BMR & Sheep have demonstrated their danger, but few black-market-users seem to genuinely appreciate this. I am publicly betting that they will fail in the near-future. If you think I am wrong, just try to take my money and prove me wrong! Otherwise, spare us your cheap talk.
Hi! I'm Gwern Branwen. You may remember me from such black-market webpages as Silk Road: Theory & Practice, and /silkroad. Today I'm here to talk to you about BlackMarket Reloaded & Sheep Marketplace.
(A signed version of this 30 October 2013 post will be posted as a comment, because I wish to use Markdown formatting; my PGP key is available.)

Background

With the fall of SR, we're all very sad: it was a good site which performed a useful function. But life goes on, so it's no surprise we're all moving on to new black markets. That said, I am concerned by the accumulating pattern I am seeing around BMR and Sheep, and by the delusional optimism of many of the users.

BMR

BlackMarket Reloaded, since the fall, has been marked by a pattern of arrogance, technical incompetence, dismissal of problems, tolerance for sellers keep buyer addresses & issuing threats, astounding tolerance for information leaks (all the implementation information, and particularly the VPS incident with the user data leak; mirrors: 1, 2), etc. We know his code is shitty and smells like vulnerabilities (programmer in 3 different IRC channels I frequent quoted bits of the leaked code with a mixture of hilarity & horror), yet somehow backopy expects to rewrite it better, despite being the same person who wrote the first version and the basic security principle that new versions have lots of bugs. (I'm not actually bothered by the DoS attacks; they're issues for any site, much less hidden services.)
And then there's the things he's not telling us. Atlantis shut down because they were worried about contacts from LE, and thus far this shut down seems to have saved them; but BMR has been around several times longer than Atlantis - would it not beggar belief if LE had not made contacts, attempted SR-style stings, or infiltrated BMR staff? And remember how we were able to discover all sorts of leaks in DPR's opsec once we had the indictment and knew what to look for? Or consider the claims being made about the Project Black Flag Leaks, where someone claims to have accessed laundry list of information from its internals - only after Metta DPR decided to rip-and-run. If this is what we see publicly for BMR, what on earth is going on behind the scenes?
backopy should have handed on BMR weeks ago, but is still around. He seems to plan to repeat SDPR's mistakes exactly: leak information all over the place, never retire, and just keep on until he is busted and takes who-knows-how-many people down to prison with him. He has learned nothing. What, exactly, is his exit strategy? What goals does he have and when will they ever be satisfied? He has been running BMR for more than 2 years now, and has not left. How does this story end: of a man who does not know his limits, does not have ability equal to the task, and refuses to quit while he's ahead? It ends with a party-van, that's how it ends.
And hardly anyone seems troubled by this! The BMR subreddit is full of bustle; people are even hailing backopy as a "hero" for allowing withdrawal of bitcoins. (How generous of him.)

Sheep

Is Sheep any better? No. BMR is troubled and probably infiltrated at this point, but Sheep may well be a dead market walking at this point. No one has a good word to say about its coding, so there may well be BMR-style issues in its future. More importantly: the veriest Google search would turn up that clearnet site, and it has been pointed out that the clearnet Czech site hosted by HexaGeek was uncannily similar to the actual hidden service. It uses almost the same exact technology, and the official explanation is that they had "fans" (fans? who set up, many months ago, before anyone gave a damn about Sheep, an entire functioning mirror while cloning the software stack and being in a foreign non-English-speaking country just like the Sheep admins?). Ridiculous! DPR may have set up a WordPress site, but at least 'altoid' didn't run an entire SR mirror! (He left that to onion.to & tor2web.org.). Sheep's likely about one subpoena of HexaGeek away from fun party times in the party-van.

The Wager

I am uninterested in seeing Sheep/BMR busted and lots of newbies caught because they can't appreciate the patterns here. People don't take mere criticism seriously, and even if I lay it all out like here, and I mention that I have an excellent track record of predictions, they still won't because anyone can doom-monger and issue warnings, it won't get through to them. I want to get through to them - I want them to understand the risks they're taking, I want them to reflexively use PGP, and I want them to leave balances on sites for as short a time as possible. So! I am putting my money where my mouth is.

Bets

I and 3 others are publicly wagering ฿4 ($816 at today's rate), ฿1 each, on the following 4 bets:
  1. BMR will not be operating in 6 months:
    25%; 1:3 (you risk ฿3 and if BMR is still operating, you win our ฿1, else you lose the ฿3 to us)
  2. BMR will not be operating in 12 months
    40%; 1:1.5 (you risk ฿1.5 & BMR is operating in a year, you win our ฿1, else lose ฿1.5)
  3. Sheep will not be operating in 6 months
    30%; 1:2.3 (your ฿2.3 against our ฿1)
  4. Sheep will not be operating in 12 months
    60%; 1:0.66 (you risk ฿0.66 against our ฿1)
The ฿4 are currently stored in 1AZvaBEJMiK8AJ5GvfvLWgHjWgL59TRPGy (proof of control: IOqEiWYWtYWFmJaKa29sOUqfMLrSWAWhHxqqB3bcVHuDpcn8rA0FkEqvRYmdgQO4yeXeNHtwr9NSqI9J79G+yPA= is the signature by 1Az of the string "This address contains bitcoins for the BMSheep bet run by gwern.").

Definitions

Escrow

Arbitration & escrow are being provided by Nanotube, a long-time Bitcoin user & -otc trader, who has handled some past bets (most famously, the ฿10,000 bet between the Ponzi schemer pirateat40 & Vandroiy) and I believe can be trusted to escrow this one as well; he has agreed to a nominal fee of 1%.
(I am not using Bets of Bitcoin because they have a dishonest & exploitative rule-set, and I am not sure Predictious would allow these bets.)

HOWTO

If you disagree and are man enough to take our bets, post the amount you are betting on which bet, and Nanotube will supply an address for you to transfer your bitcoin to. When it arrives in his wallet, then our bet will be in effect.
May the most accurate beliefs win.
submitted by gwern to SilkRoad [link] [comments]

Nakamoto Dundee and Dave Kleiman: what evidence is there that Kleiman knew Wright or was into Bitcoin, other than evidence provided by Wright or the 2015 "leaker"?

I'm currently stuck on trying to make any fucking sense of the story of Professor Dr Dr Craig Wright. I have a zillion documents from 2015-2016 here, with Nik Cubrilovic's superlative evidence compilation as my main guide.
Currently I have a timeline something like:
(any corrections to this are most valued)
(btw, that LRB piece is actually awesome. He never calls Wright a "fraud" himself, but he really doesn't have to. It's worth getting to the end of the 34,000 words.)
The only third-party backing for this is this May 2016 post by Ian Grigg, stating outright that "Satoshi" was a team of Wright and Kleiman (and maybe others), per Grigg's personal knowledge. Wright was a fan of Grigg's "triple ledger accounting" paper that may be one of the precursors to Satoshi's blockchain. Grigg is a bit weird (he's got lots of crank "free banking" advocacy on his site) but he's presently gainfully employed by the R3 blockchain consortium, so presumably knows a bit of this stuff technically.
The thing is: was there ever any pre-2013 evidence of Kleiman (a) knowing Wright (b) being into Bitcoin? I mean evidence that didn't come via Wright or his "leaker".
Kleiman was actually a noteworthy person, slightly famous in computer security and forensics, author of a few books; his Wikipedia article was created in 2006. But I'd never heard of him before Nakamoto Dundee and I bet you hadn't either.
submitted by dgerard to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

Moronic Monday - It's your weekly stupid questions thread

A bit late but rather late then never!
Post your question - stupid or otherwise - here to get an answer. Anyone can post a question and the community as a whole is invited and encouraged to provide an answer. Many questions get submitted late each week that don't get a lot of action, so if your question didn't get answered before, feel free to post it again.
I do ask that you refrain from abusing noobs in this thread. Feel free to link to guides, wikis, forums, other subreddits (particularly /bitcoin and /drugs [though many on the Bitcoin subreddit don't take real kindly to SR]), or the FAQ, though.
Useful resources:
http://erowid.org
http://dkn255hz262ypmii.onion
http://dkn255hz262ypmii.onion/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page
reddit.com/Drugs
reddit.com/askdrugs
reddit.com/SilkRoadDeals
reddit.com/nootropics
http://gwern.net
The sidebar -----
Fire away!
submitted by SilkRoadGuru to SilkRoad [link] [comments]

Moronic Monday - It's your weekly stupid questions thread

Post your question - stupid or otherwise - here to get an answer. Anyone can post a question and the community as a whole is invited and encouraged to provide an answer. Many questions get submitted late each week that don't get a lot of action, so if your question didn't get answered before, feel free to post it again.
I do ask that you refrain from abusing noobs in this thread. Feel free to link to guides, wikis, forums, other subreddits (particularly /bitcoin[1] [1] [2] and /drugs[2] [2] [3] [though many on the Bitcoin subreddit don't take real kindly to SR]), or the FAQ, though.
Weekly MOD update: For all that dont know already, we are welcoming a new Mod hugsfordrugs! Excited to see them aboard as we are slowly turning this subreddit away from drama and non-SR related threads by deleting them almost instantly. A reminder to use the spam and report options available when you see post that break the rules, we catch most of it but sometimes a post will slip through and when it is reported, we get notifications.
Useful resources:
http://erowid.org[5][3][3]
http://dkn255hz262ypmii.onion[6][4][4]
http://dkn255hz262ypmii.onion/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page[7][5][5]
reddit.com/Drugs[6] [6] [8]
reddit.com/askdrugs[7] [7] [9]
reddit.com/SilkRoadDeals[8] [8] [10]
reddit.com/nootropics[9] [9] [11]
http://gwern.net[12][10][10]
The sidebar -----
Fire away!
submitted by SilkRoadGuru to SilkRoad [link] [comments]

How Ulbricht paid ฿100 to learn about `bitcoind -rescan`

I was revisiting Gwern and my research into the Silk Road / Mt. Gox connection, found something very interesting on the '1MR6pXD' address. Oh Ulbricht...
xpost from this post:
Long-time readers may recall that among Ulbricht's problems with developing & running Silk Road, he had problems with theft from his MtGox account: "Silk Goxed: How DPR used Mtgox for hedging & lost big". We identified his accounts and deposits as part of that investigation.
Based on our findings, imposter has found a previously unknown Ross Ulbricht account on the Bitcoin Talk forums, used for tech support with SR1 problems: the user account "kohlanta" (posts), registered 19 August 2012. The name is a reference to a tourist destination in Thailand; Ulbricht was living in Australia around this time and traveled some places, apparently including Ko Lanta. This account must be Ulbricht because (1) who has ฿40,000 in a single address in August 2015? (2) the amount matches up exactly with the big transactions noted in 'Silk Goxed', and kohlanta's address 1MR..Y is the one involved in the Ulbricht withdrawals/deposits. (When he told me about this, I felt dumb - why hadn't I bothered to google 1MR..Y during our 'Silk Goxed' work to see if it had appeared anywhere else online?)
kohlanta's first question concerns the inability to move ฿40,000; this problem was solved by bitcoind -rescan, as pointed out by BT user fcmatt. (You can see he did indeed pay the ฿100 by noting that the amounts shrink by exactly that much.)
We can also see the trial testimony independently confirmed by kohlanta's further questions: questions about using curl, json-rpc, and versioning issues with the wallet.
There's nothing really important here that I can see, but it's interesting to see him panicking over the 1MR..Y, and it's definitely a reminder that Bitcoin addresses are only pseudonymous; once pseudonymity has been broken or damaged, you can continue to follow transactions & addresses to see what you can find.
submitted by impost_r to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Moronic Monday - It's your weekly stupid questions thread

Post your question - stupid or otherwise - here to get an answer. Anyone can post a question and the community as a whole is invited and encouraged to provide an answer. Many questions get submitted late each week that don't get a lot of action, so if your question didn't get answered before, feel free to post it again.
I do ask that you refrain from abusing noobs in this thread. Feel free to link to guides, wikis, forums, other subreddits (particularly /bitcoin[1] [2] and /drugs[2] [3] [though many on the Bitcoin subreddit don't take real kindly to SR]), or the FAQ, though.
Weekly MOD update: Spam is slowing down and the AutoMod is picking up on it better. Still having trouble with posts that have nothing to do with this sub, so if your thread doesnt have to do with SR in any way and it disappears, we have deleted it.
Useful resources:
http://erowid.org[5][3]
http://dkn255hz262ypmii.onion[6][4]
http://dkn255hz262ypmii.onion/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page[7][5]
reddit.com/Drugs[6] [8]
reddit.com/askdrugs[7] [9]
reddit.com/SilkRoadDeals[8] [10]
reddit.com/nootropics[9] [11]
http://gwern.net[12][10]
The sidebar -----
Fire away!
submitted by SilkRoadGuru to SilkRoad [link] [comments]

Moronic Monday - It's your weekly stupid questions thread. Please upvote for visibility. I receive no karma for this post.

ALL CREDIT TO u/RacistConspiracy FOR THE BELOW INFORMATION:
Hey /SilkRoad[1] , it is time for Moronic Monday!
Post your question - stupid or otherwise - here to get an answer. Anyone can post a question and the community as a whole is invited and encouraged to provide an answer. Many questions get submitted late each week that don't get a lot of action, so if your question didn't get answered before, feel free to post it again.
I do ask that you refrain from abusing noobs in this thread. Feel free to link to guides, wikis, forums, other subreddits (particularly /bitcoin[2] and /drugs[3] [though many on the Bitcoin subreddit don't take real kindly to SR]), or the FAQ, though.
The Chinese scammer is still doing his thing here. They'll be using a rotating array of URL shorteners to evade reddit's spam filters. This scam's site is called emocoe (also bitswing and bitcoinestore [not to be confused with the legitimate bitcoinstore]), and they are doing the same thing: claiming to offer bitcoin for far under market value in exchange for Paypal or debit or whatever. No legitimate exchange does this. Please report it when you see it. Your reports make deleting it much easier, and train reddit's spam filter to start catching the URL shorteners.
iam_Astrid [4] is joining us as a mod in order to assist with CSS stuff.
Useful resources:
http://erowid.org[5]
http://dkn255hz262ypmii.onion[6]
http://dkn255hz262ypmii.onion/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page[7]
reddit.com/Drugs[8]
reddit.com/askdrugs[9]
reddit.com/SilkRoadDeals[10]
reddit.com/nootropics[11]
http://gwern.net[12]
The sidebar -----
Fire away!
submitted by SilkRoadGuru to SilkRoad [link] [comments]

Disaster averted: How I would go about addressing climate change

There is a lot of despair surrounding climate change lately, because the future we had hoped for did not unfold. The despair is justified to a large degree, as a lot of things have gone terrible wrong. As an example, the Americans have decided to elect a president who doesn't want to commit to reducing carbon emissions and instead wants to subsidize the dying coal industry.
I don't feel like delving too much into the question of what causes this delusional mentality, nor do I feel like addressing the various arguments people have come up with to justify sticking their heads into the sand. Today I'd rather look at some of the things we can still do, to preserve a habitable planet. Even if the catastrophic predictions about positive feedback loops that go around turn out to be correct, it's unjustified to state that all hope is lost. There's a lot that can still be done, that people haven't adequately considered. I hope to cover some of those projects today.

Emergency interventions for threatened ecosystems

You might have seen some of the studies that came out, arguing that limiting the temperature rise to 1.5 degree Celsius would be insufficient to save most of the world's coral reefs. The coral reefs seem to be the most urgently threatened ecosystems out there. However, there are a number of emergency measures we can take, that would help us to buy time to prevent the coral reefs from dying.
As an example, we can emit sulfates into the atmosphere, that block sunlight. It's estimated that one kilogram of well-placed sulfates, can offset the effects of hundreds of thousands of kilogram of carbon dioxide. Studies have been done on this subject, which found that placing sulphates into the atmosphere, would help us to prevent the coral reefs from dying. Other emergence measures for the coral reefs are discussed here.
Important of course to note is that the coral reefs aren't just at risk of extreme temperatures, they're threatened by ocean acification too. However, ocean acidification can also be addressed to some degree as well. Seaweed takes up carbon from the ocean when it grows, thus locally reducing the Ph of the ocean. Studies are being done, that look at protecting coral reefs, by building seaweed farms near the coral reefs. The seaweed farms are found to be able to buy us anywhere between 7 to 21 years.
Of course, it's important to note that we first need to ensure that seaweed cultivation becomes economically viable on such a large scale. A good start would be to start eating seaweed. Globally, seaweed cultivation is the fastest growing crop, growing by an estimated 8% per year. Billions of people worldwide receive too little iodine in their diet, including an estimated 70% of people in the United Kingdom. I personally try to eat a lot of seaweed. If the seaweed industry grows fast enough, costs may eventually drop down enough, to allow us to feed seaweed to our pets and to farm animals, before we will eventually use seaweed as a form of biomass for renewable energy.

The meat industry

The Japanese eat a third of the amount of meat Americans eat, but live four years longer on average, with far less obesity, heart disease, diabetes and cancer. I think humans benefit from some animal products in their diet, but we certainly don't need as much meat in our diet as we eat in the Western world. The ideal scenario would be if we could eliminate the consumption of all domesticated vertebrates. Instead, the main meat we would continue to eat would be from shellfish.
We're approaching the point where we can grow meat in labs, at commercially viable prices. When this happens the amount of land needed to produce meat is reduced by 99%, while greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by 78-96%. Globally, the vast majority of the land we use, is used to grow animals who end up as meat on our dinner plate.
It's clear that if lab-grown meat can be deployed on a large enough scale, large-scale reforestation of the planet becomes a viable objective to pursue. Many farms will go bankrupt, while massive migrations from the countryside towards the city will occur, as new jobs will emerge in cities, at the cost of rural lands. Governments can and should encourage this development. An easy way to encourage this development, would be to level the playing field. You don't need to subsidize lab-grown meat, we can easily stand on our own feed. Instead, get rid of your agricultural subsidies for meat production.
I'm all in favor of Britain withdrawing from the EU, because the EU pumps billions of dollars every year into an unsustainable form of agriculture that puts our planet on the path towards global annihilation while filling the pockets of blue-blooded aristocrats who happen to have inherited a lot of land, most of which was simply stolen over successive generations.

Renewable energy

I have long been skeptical, but it's clear to me now that an economy based on renewable energy can function. It might not be easy and it may take some adaptation, but we can sustain civilization without fossil fuels. The big argument generally brought up against renewable energy is that renewable energy is an intermittent form of energy.
However, this doesn't have to be a significant problem, if we consider the simple fact that our civilization can learn to use energy on an intermittent basis. As an example, a house that's well insulated can lose 1 degree Celsius of heat, when it goes four hours without being heated. Thus, if you're dealing with intermittent electricity, excess electricity could quite easily be used to heat the house.
How would you go about using excess electricity to heat your house? I can think of many ways, but here's an example: If your computer is using Boinc, it could quite easily be set up to start grinding once electricity prices are cheap and temperatures in your house are low. Once Gridcoin becomes a success, this will actually earn you money. Similarly, when your refrigerator is closed, like it generally is during the night, it can quite easily go a few hours without cooling. Appliances can quite easily be designed to work with the reality of intermittent electricity.
Of course I'm not suggesting here that we could cope with a world where everything runs on intermittent solar and wind, with zero storage. Fortunately, to some degree we will find ourselves able to store electricity. Electrical cars can be used to donate electricity to the grid, during moments of (looming) shortage. In addition to this, we will always maintain a source of electricity that's not intermittent: Biomass. In the ideal scenario, we will create giant seaweed farms, where seaweed is grown that's then burned in our current coal plants. The carbon that's emitted when the seaweed is burned can then be used for various purposes, rather than being dumped into the atmosphere.
I often see the argument proposed that some solution can't be scaled. There is not enough lithium for electrical cars, there is not enough lead for batteries, there is not enough land for biofuels, there are not enough empty roofs for solar panels, etcetera. What's forgotten in these arguments, is that none of these solutions will have to stand on their own. Climate change is not an easy problem, but it's a problem that's going to be solved by applying many different solutions. Some societies will be successful at this and succeed, others will fail and become failed states. America under Trump is likely to join the latter category.
Another issue that's forgotten, is the fact that we're really spoiled, to a degree that it harms us. What would happen if Americans would suddenly have their electricity supply drop by fifty percent? If they can't learn to use electricity more efficiently, they would have to return to the standard of living they had in the 1960's. Did people die of hunger in the streets back then? As far as I can tell, they played more card and board games and went out more, rather than staring at screens. I think if we lost fifty percent of our electricity supply, we would be miserable for a few months, before we would breathe a sigh of relief and learn to deal with it. To me, the real question is whether we have the willpower to do what needs to be done, not whether it can be done or not.

Carbon sequestration

I've already shown that we can free large amounts of land through lab-grown meat, that can then be used to grow enormous forests that will sequester carbon dioxide. The Amazon rainforest can be restored to its original extent, if we play our cards right.
However, it doesn't stop here. We have alternative methods of carbon sequestration available to us too. If we covered 9% of the world's oceans with seaweed, we could sequester all the carbon dioxide we emit per year today. The reality remains that most of the ocean consists of deserts, where nothing can live because seaweed, corals and shellfish don't have the attachment points to grow and develop a rich ecosystem.
You might have seen some of the nature documentaries, where an old ship is dumped at the right location, to make an artificial coral reef. This can be done in many ways, for many different organisms. Wind farms in the North Sea were discovered a few months ago to serve as perfect places for oysters to attach to. These oysters grow there now and attract other animals, that live off the oysters.
In a similar manner, humans can grow seaweed in places, simply by creating attachment points for these plants. We're used to destroying ecosystems, turning giant forests into deserts as we have done around the world. What we're capable of doing too, is turning oceanic deserts into giant underwater forests. It doesn't require intense effort, we're already doing it by accident, as the wind turbines in the North Sea have demonstrated.
When we grow biomass, we think of it as a carbon-neutral form of energy production. We can easily turn it into a carbon-negative form of energy production however, simply by using the carbon dioxide. There are many different forms of carbon sequestration. The most promising perhaps, is to build with carbon-negative concrete, which is concrete that's built using carbon dioxide.
Concrete production currently causes 5% of all global CO2 emissions. It's thought however, that we can produce concrete that sequesters twice as much carbon as regular concrete emits. We would thus be able to reduce CO2 emisisons by 15%, simply by replacing all of our current concrete with this new carbon-negative concrete.
The curve of technology adaptation is becoming steeper. Whereas it took a century before most people in Western nations had cars, it took ten years before most of us had internet. How fast do you think we can transition to 100% carbon-negative concrete? I think this can be accomplished within a few years, if we're willing to make the transition.
Similarly, in Iceland, power plants are being developed that sequester carbon dioxide while generating energy. Of course the amount sequestered is not enormous yet, the equivalent of 150 Bitcoin transactions, but it's a first step in the right direction.

Cognitive enhancement

I think this solution is important to note, even if it will seem like far-fetched science-fiction to some of you. This is ultimately a solution on which every above solution will come to depend. We're used to problems that have a singular unified solution. Climate change is not such a problem, it requires reconfiguring our entire carbon-based economy. We will find ourselves faced with a situation that may require hundreds of small solutions, rather than one single big solution. This requires intelligent people, who are capable of discovering and implementing such solutions.
What we need right now is a cultural transition, that will lead people to take this problem seriously. When people take the problem seriously, they'll take the solutions seriously and move towards implementing them. One important thing we've noted, is that people's environmental attitude, is strongly linked to their ability to delay gratification. People who are able to delay gratification, desire to take care of the environment they inhabit. Delayed gratification in turn, is a product of intelligence.
When we look at societies where people try to take care of the environment they inhabit, we find that the people there tend to be relatively intelligent. Consider for example, the two nations where the highest percentage of the population considers climate change to be caused by human activity: South Korea and Japan. South Koreans and Japanese people are among the most intelligent people on the planet. Similarly, Chinese people score at the top of the list.
Why do Americans stick their heads into the sand? Why do they vote for leaders who pretend the problem isn't real? Why are you guaranteed to have some American numbnuts show up in the comment section of any article about climate change, insisting that we'll soon have a solar minimum that will somehow end the problem, that the climate has always changed, that volcanoes actually emit more CO2 than humans, that carbon dioxide makes plants grow, that climate change is actually caused by poor Indians and Africans who have too many children rather than by Americans, or that it only seems like the Earth is warming because of measuring stations located near cities?
The answer is, that on average Americans are simply not very intelligent people. Keep in mind, that 41% of Americans genuinely believe that Jesus will return to Earth before the year 2050. Besides lacking intelligence, they lack the ability to think critically. They're good at selectively seeking out information they already want to believe. Like a bunch of parrots in a tree they'll blindly copy whatever they're hearing and amplify each other's stupidity to soothe their nerves. We can discuss all of the various reasons why Americans are not very intelligent and poorly capable of critical thought in a later essay. It's worth noting however, that most Americans suffer from very poor health, which diminishes their innate cognitive potential.
Imagine if the whole world had the level of intelligence of Japanese or South Korean people. People there have birth rates and immigration policies that ensure their population is gradually declining. Japanese people eat a third of the meat American people eat. In addition, Japanese people emit 70% less CO2 in transportation, than Americans.
The reality we're dealing with, is that our problem would be relatively easy to solve, if we lived on a planet with seven billion people with a level of intelligence equivalent to that of East Asians. The global overpopulation crisis we face is almost entirely caused by religious fundamentalism. Religious fundamentalism in turn, is caused by people who lack intelligence. Intelligent people, capable of critical thinking, don't force children to carry out suicide bombings. A society with sufficient intelligent people, is one where dumb people adjust themselves to the culture of intelligent people, whereas in most societies the opposite occurs.
The solution we're looking for, is thus ultimately a form of cognitive enhancement. There are many different ways to go about this. It's possible for people to select the smartest embryo to implant, to ensure children have a genetic potential that far outweighs their parents.
There are however, far simpler probably more cost-effective methods we can already use right now. Millions of people, even in Western nations, suffer from iodine deficiency during pregnancy. This permanently stunts the IQ of their children. Similarly, we can feed people a healthy diet with sufficient Omega 3 fatty acids, encourage breastfeeding and eliminate gestational diabetes, while reducing exposure to fluoride which competitively displaces iodine in the human body.
If these solutions are genuinely pursued, we will raise the average IQ of the world's population, which should be sufficient to create the kind of conditions where people vote for leaders who take climate change seriously and pursue serious effort to preserve a habitable planet. We don't have to be like deer on an island, because we will have the cognitive potential to plan ahead for the crisis that looms ahead of us.
submitted by sourdoughsauerkraut to accountt1234 [link] [comments]

Is there actual evidence of a child porn market using cryptocurrencies?

Is there any actual evidence of child pornography being sold for cryptocurrency?
It's a commonplace to link Bitcoin to child porn, and we joke about "pedo-pesos", because anyone who's ever asked an anarcho-capitalist for their views on age of consent will want to give their brain a long shower afterwards.
But is there any actual evidence of this? I can't find anything I'd trust as evidence, and I'm not confident as yet to stand up and say "there probably is" or "there probably isn't".
gwern's release of 1.5TB of darknet screencaps apparently shows nothing along these lines at all. As he said on HN:
As far as CP goes, there should be essentially zero CP anywhere in the archive. DNM users almost universally loathe CP, and no market has ever dared to permit sales. (You may find this funny: CP is so taboo, on the DNMs like elsewhere, that it's been used in at least one attack - SR2's DoctorClu/Brian Farrell infamously attacked a rival market's forum by posting CP to it.)
The European Financial Coalition Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation Online, whoever they actually are, cite Internet Watch Foundation claims. The IWF claims are in two Guardian articles (1) (2). The trouble with those is that they appear to be content-free scary techcnical bafflegab about evil therefore you should fund us, and I know the IWF to be technically incompetent fools who will say any BS to justify their continued existence, after Wikipedia tangled with them in 2009 and I got to call them "hamfisted and incompetent" on telly. (And Jon Snow ripping the IWF guy to shreds on Channel 4 News was champagne comedy.) So I flatly don't consider the IWF any sort of trustworthy or usable source.
There's Amir Taaki's famous post offering phone sex from his underage self or his underage friends, of course. That's not quite a market, so I'm not sure it quite counts.
Does anything know of anything else that actually has a reasonably backed up source?
[This is separate from the CP link someone put into the blockchain, of course.]
edit: almost wishing I hadn't asked now. My brain needs a shower again.
submitted by dgerard to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

SR1 trial: DPR's private key

One of the released evidence exhibits (torrent, 538MB) is GX 296.pdf (mirror), which is a PGP private key, specifically: SilkRoad.asc, "dated modified 11/22/2011 8:21:46 AM".
This is the ASCII-armored private key of the main DPR public key, the one he signed forum posts with and messaged with people. I was surprised to see it screenshotted like that, and I thought it would be hilarious if I could take the private key and announce that I was actually the real DPR by signing it with his key (since I've occasionally been accused of it).
But it's a screenshot and not something one can copy-paste, which makes things difficult since every letter has to be perfect for the key to be valid. So I took an evening to carefully transcribe it; it took multiple passes to figure out each and every transcription error (mostly 1/l, O/0, which look nearly identical in the font*), but I finally did it:
-----BEGIN PGP PRIVATE KEY BLOCK----- Version: GnuPG v1.4.11 (GNU/Linux) lQO+BE2VWMwBCADcoI5qldde46EI80fHSTCS4CuJn1Py4AQjJvpAqFColeAm9xb1 /hb0ZUsG3vwod7uiPJdMlq3+1o3TSv9JlO3DPf7I50owQ9+S1ixXebouTvfpEKSb dq1IWAu+O4PtlmFEb76MOmjOzoeV8We8kCRFq8ThoK979A1DR09KsaDfSjCITdsU mQyVaRN0dCaj33V/QAPQybYAjNDEiNd0e1tV22n1dl6z2oVUgfJiuTVI5C0FhSKP c3odexbKUSVk9tkUWcfnk8+9HF5jGNHnUSjWxMkG1uZUDdWKl4yJqQhBHdYqcz8A hcJ6xADbFeoYEO6z5NEjXV0KmoDRCi4C7gdfABEBAAH+AgMC7Hbd7rIjH9vHfrZp /lhwGpLJknlcg/xD4nhaFtrlAVW5Lqn/oL/JqXKX6buPMGWsqrc+E/7A1ZMMHTl0 bn99MSQi1mTkCVyJP4xTpKouLmLIxvzy2/GOMGS03QX8iSzbE4j0el/c5YlYEQr4 genr8Xq9Iyv73W+1n+yOQvJ9PqaMFdyAZLIdNuEgBzvXSt00a5bLKjbL/KuoTdrA C3D1bc0HDlKnzVLcSAFat+y6A5B4EuI/d1oW2Id1tq3azuUpEb9ctG26sYtw7ipE edNjcwsO9XA+vNTnPy9ms698yf615Bwioih5FYNM3Vsqc1zLpv5XwdYWWRW4WRIW xiqqgv6oGh6+HU9XMV937+1VNDf4k4sNXECjxQ4B0MX/F5eWEsfIlqt4V2HMEDE/ eQ0zQbVRhf2MBJ6n6Vw6DDEUEv+4Dn9CUdYSyJPsK7/0JLO/VnKoPqvwhq+p7hZ4 JMHPWwFoMsT3Nuj15Nk3CrgDGE9C6GSyP88BTnSbgyqe9erFHXTOm80r6OfKpDVB h8/nt7iCFxlPcTLqkUoZf1ZwmlJCSD5fB9/yaAwTc3klFdkiPe0ZFODa/aLOqZrG AoYLsPMt9fntzrnXfwsTthkBxDSFiTxxxlRe1eQeRlALO2Bm5Qfn6jRGhrIraX RksscWcFWptjVlm9CDr2al7otX/RPqFjX3uiJMZfBFoYDmb49xdGaptlMCHaD6Wm XJFb4Wiu1ovERN38AT6IxXFPmPJw6SKrSmVeV5Pmn9+SHtfjAA+st0EMGhzBtW2N uZr0wwO1/EcrzaOP4So7n7IqmG3nKafibY2q5Occn/BHqvTKaik+q4b6a/vVdTtl Erp3hXlGk/6UpBLT5RYbU4p7WLGAj5r8DAyH0kI1+tcCxBKD9WVLSFzYqH9Ea59g 77QkU2lsayBSb2FkIDxzdGFmZkBzaWxrcm9hZG1hcmtldC5vcmc+iQE4BBMBAgAi BQJNlVjMAhsPBgsJCAcDAgYVCAIJCgsEFgIDAQIeAQIXgAAKCRACIkI7Z7f6JV/P B/92DrCPpqfzF6EPu1g6Mxt/39EAosKr4YwmVE5DuY+g6pR2dOtDfvkt3QxQkURB QeyaKOQNuXus4vDQi4kcmzHD3DLmc0A0wQzGOyl0a+LwdqUOtckL4SIPbEzSDP9e sOZOweGkBkSDB13KBkW4fFbDGkEcYHZyUt/jFgxflMLtnxAksR1fH0NbmZnUr1e4 L7p+QylRuXOhGLObOTU0n7KDbuZijgqKDKyV6yEXfLJDrZqzlqmoh+DJisn+53Br glDwt7p3MHR3ejyausNeodK7FJ0sY0uHUHuUOmF2xDGvHVb/jrwS5sb7k8YMuq ptRgsMLFLebgM3jrCg78g23k =D+ez -----END PGP PRIVATE KEY BLOCK----- 
This imports into my GPG without any CRC problems and with correct metadata, so it should be right. But it turns out to be passphrase-protected! Dammit! My first try to decrypt it was to take the server exhibit, write down every password given in it, and try those:
109j7IAier 2n3fh4n3o 2t31fKF5hm 2WBx5obj 34534r3f 384jdridh 3j483r87yfn38 _47JB+p1\j}[email protected](L[nZ)#W- 4B5HMiJYy0N0bbK5 4pVAW9bv 4W8IWDjInLguJD8T 83drj3984 8pz2PGGEmn3h3hGJ 8sa7dhf8a7 938ru39 9MPGCtBK abrault66 abstractapproachfillsthemindwithjoy acharlton66 achrlton66 ameeraissa66 [email protected] [email protected] bTyL5RbC cbrady66 cdigby66 dboone66 dFDrN345DSftX dQsQRighnXczcphJ dsmith66 dwallace66 dwiurhi37n EgXcn1ANYF eK5nJgfDqERQ3K96 fahu6wq4ue fwarren66 gboyle66 gtilly66 hallahaa hR6vpCxaGY HuKKtaoLLa hulluh832 J39hlF4n Je)pae]yuxeif7xi jknCRfR3yq3hbtzp k8JqM7Cijw kborunda66 kclark66 LaQXhcURAGMME3gq lmackrell66 lzielinski66 mgatewood66 nlbosm42093 nsj8jdke oh3bdc8wcn rlvrGdex RPGLdgjjveBtHpEN SD8rcicL sfa76ht7 sofas-qxsch sums-XATq86P the2Fieshaqu tkiW23GL U5f305OX Uha4zFYo v6ay080942 w732ihrw7e w8j374847dhw wefi7y4mwh wjBSGHvfEQdfh9oZ x4TiJfRE XUVYNGBgvu7fb5Hw yMrEATSQ7BsBEouV zFAvzSBUXcC0 zS08HbISvSZcB5Ex 
None of these seemed to work for me. (imposter also tried the Elcom dictionary +0-9, 6-9 characters, alphabet, lowercase.)
So then I turned to a password cracker, specifically John the Ripper (WP), whose bleeding-jumbo edition I compiled with OpenCL (so it could use my wimpy GPU, which for Bitcoin mining could do something like 50mh/s); John doesn't handle GPG natively, but it apparently does ship with a tool gpg2john to convert the passphrase hash to something it can work with, which yields:
Silk Road:$gpg$*1*668*2048*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*3*254*2*2*8*7eb669fe58701a92*6029312*ec76ddeeb2231fdb:::Silk Road ::/home/gwern/sr.asc 
I think one could also try pgpry but I didn't since I got john up and running before I saw it.
Since the server passwords failed, and I saw a variety of characters and capitalizations, I had john do bruteforce:
john --format=gpg-opencl --incremental=ASCII sr-hash 
I ran it for about a week, and finally lost my patience. I was hoping it'd be like one of the short passphrases in the server password list, which would have been bruteforced by now. I wound up ending john at
0g 9:13:13:11 0g/s 74.14p/s 74.14c/s 74.14C/s dsssii..dlshk2 
(john.log, john.rec)
Oh well. It was worth a shot. Not everything pans out.
But maybe someone with a GPU cluster or better at password cracking wants to give it a shot and reveal the passphrase? I can't pretend to be DPR after posting this, but it would still be interesting to go back and decrypt some of the messages to DPR on the SR1 forums. (Why should LE have all the snooping fun?)
* these characters also mean OCR is not very useful for transcribing crypto keys; every character has to be perfect, so since you're going to be going character-by-character anyway... One thought I had was that the right key was only maybe 5-10 edits away from the OCR version or my first hand-draft, so it should be feasible to brute-force all versions within a certain edit distance to see if their CRC is right or brute-force specific transpositions. But I don't transcribe keys nearly often enough to bother writing such a tool.
submitted by gwern to SilkRoad [link] [comments]

Moronic Monday - It's your weekly stupid questions thread

Post your question - stupid or otherwise - here to get an answer. Anyone can post a question and the community as a whole is invited and encouraged to provide an answer. Many questions get submitted late each week that don't get a lot of action, so if your question didn't get answered before, feel free to post it again.
I do ask that you refrain from abusing noobs in this thread. Feel free to link to guides, wikis, forums, other subreddits (particularly /bitcoin and /drugs [though many on the Bitcoin subreddit don't take real kindly to SR]), or the FAQ, though.
Bitcoins: Please use the search bar for this. It literally is on this sub hundreds of times and is answered over and over.
Useful resources:
http://erowid.org
http://dkn255hz262ypmii.onion
http://dkn255hz262ypmii.onion/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page
reddit.com/Drugs
reddit.com/askdrugs
reddit.com/SilkRoadDeals
reddit.com/nootropics
http://gwern.net
The sidebar -----
Fire away!
submitted by SilkRoadGuru to SilkRoad [link] [comments]

An essay I'm working on

I’m posting this as an incomplete and rather disorganized draft of an essay I’m working on. I'll will publish a longer and complete post later on (I think I'm only about 1/3 of the way through it), but I figured I share what I already have:
There’s an ethos to Bitcoin that many people find particularly hard to grasp. In this essay, I’m will attempt to take some of the more technical problems in Bitcoin and distill them into something that can be understood by a wider audience, but first I feel it’s necessary to provide some historical background about the realm of digital/electronic cash. I'll present a few hours of light reading (not required to understand the essay, but important nonetheless):
From the Cypherpunk's Manifesto:
We the Cypherpunks are dedicated to building anonymous systems. We are defending our privacy with cryptography, with anonymous mail forwarding systems, with digital signatures, and with electronic money.
This was written in 1993, a full 15 years before Bitcoin was conceived. So why did it take so long? Because there were other electronic money systems that were attempted and failed. In order to understand Bitcoin, I believe it's important to understand the context of these past failures.
David Chaum came up with a radical idea somewhere around 1982: “Blind signatures for untraceable payments”. In the 6 page paper, he laid out an electronic cash system which provided the “inability of third parties to determine the payee, time, or amount of payments made by an individual.” In order to accomplish this, he came up with a beautiful system called a “blind signature.” It was secure, but it had a big non-cryptographic fatal flaw: It required a trusted third party (bank) in order to function. The third party could refuse to make or take payments and do all sorts of other nastiness. That didn't matter to Chaum because his company would be the bank, and he would not violate those ideals. Using these concepts he founded a company called DigiCash (here is the post-mortem): http://www.forbes.com/forbes/1999/1101/6411390a.html
Not to be deterred by prior failure another digital currency company was started around 1998: E-gold. This was met with significantly more success in adoption. My theory is that E-Gold succeeded where DigiCash failed because E-gold provided a tangible good (gold) as a backing. It’s hard for a consumer to accept data as money if they have little knowledge of what the past and current money systems are based on. Ultimately, E-gold met a different failure mode: the State (see wiki article for details). I strongly believe that had DigiCash survived to E-gold’s level of adoption, it would have either been co-opted or obliterated by this mechanism as well.
There are a number of other examples of failures which have occurred in “E-Cash” world: Beenz, Liberty Reserve, PayPal, etc. There’s a whole other story about PayPal, but for brevity we’ll just say it “co-opted” rather than “obliterated.” These numerous failures were a bit of an ideological crisis for the Cypherpunks. Many were (and many still are) of the opinion that a viable e-cash could not be created without ending in two failure modes: Co-opted (and thus neutered) by existing government/corporate power structures or destroyed because it threatened the aforementioned structures. This is something that’s played out in the physical world as well (see Liberty Dollar).
There were a couple good technical reasons why it was thought impossible, not the least of which was the Byzantine General’s Problem (further reading here and here). There were engineered answers to the problem, but none were thought to be resilient enough to withstand an open network with dishonest (and even irrationally evil) participants. Most knew that centralized solutions would fail because they had already been tried (even when created by their own). There were a few solutions that were close to solving the problem but missed the mark (RPOW), were never implemented (bit-gold and b-money), or weren’t intended to be a general solution (hashcash).
Enter Bitcoin. On October 31, 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto made a post on the Cryptography mail list presenting a copy of his paper: http://www.bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf and the abstract. I’ll post the very first public criticism on the list (emphasis mine):
We very, very much need such a system, but the way I understand your proposal, it does not seem to scale to the required size.
For transferable proof of work tokens to have value, they must have monetary value. To have monetary value, they must be transferred within a very large network - for example a file trading network akin to bittorrent.
To detect and reject a double spending event in a timely manner, one must have most past transactions of the coins in the transaction, which, naively implemented, requires each peer to have most past transactions, or most past transactions that occurred recently. If hundreds of millions of people are doing transactions, that is a lot of bandwidth - each must know all, or a substantial part thereof.
Reasonably, Satoshi replies with this:
Long before the network gets anywhere near as large as that, it would be safe for users to use Simplified Payment Verification (section 8) to check for double spending, which only requires having the chain of block headers, or about 12KB per day. Only people trying to create new coins would need to run network nodes. At first, most users would run network nodes, but as the network grows beyond a certain point, it would be left more and more to specialists with server farms of specialized hardware. A server farm would only need to have one node on the network and the rest of the LAN connects with that one node.
The bandwidth might not be as prohibitive as you think. A typical transaction would be about 400 bytes (ECC is nicely compact). Each transaction has to be broadcast twice, so lets say 1KB per transaction. Visa processed 37 billion transactions in FY2008, or an average of 100 million transactions per day. That many transactions would take 100GB of bandwidth, or the size of 12 DVD or 2 HD quality movies, or about $18 worth of bandwidth at current prices.
If the network were to get that big, it would take several years, and by then, sending 2 HD movies over the Internet would probably not seem like a big deal.
I want to point something out about this conversation: Satoshi does not dispute James Donald’s point that a fully deployed network at the time of publication would not be possible… he simply states that in the future it will be possible because of optimizations and technological improvements. I believe that neither are right, but Satoshi was just slightly closer to being correct. Close enough to pique the Hal Finney's (creator of RPOW) interest and the rest is history.
Some other notes that I’ll be working on incorporating into a final draft of this: Based on email provided by Wei Dai to gwern, Satoshi was known to contact Adam Back and Wei Dai before the posting on p2pfoundation or on the Cryptography mailing list. It’s interesting the lack of knowledge that Satoshi displayed regarding prior art: it seems he didn’t know about b-money, RPOW, or bitgold at the time he was directed by Adam towards the b-money concept. It makes me wonder if he would have fallen into a mental trap had he known about those concepts.
submitted by throckmortonsign to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Ben and the Queen of All!  Queen of Bees  Ben 10 ... YouTube Im Interview mit BBC The Cardigans - Lovefool - YouTube Didi Hallervorden auf dem Arbeitsamt - YouTube

In July 2010, he read about > Bitcoin on Slashdot, and decided that the nascent Bitcoin community needed > an exchange for trading Bitcoin & regular currencies; a week later, after > writing an exchange website, he launched it while reusing the mtgox.com > domain name. [etc etc] I think that covers everything important while not being misleading or discussing trivia. Was ist BitCoin? Das 2009 gestartete Open-Source-Projekt BitCoin zählt zu den jüngsten Formen elektronischen Geldes. BitCoin basiert auf Idee und Grundsatzentwurf des geheimnisumwitterten Satoshi Nakamoto, dessen tatsächliche Existenz umstritten ist. Diese spannende Infografik aus dem Bitcoin Wiki zeigt sehr kompakt und chronologisch die Entwicklung der Bitcoin Kurse. Eine wunderbare Infografik von User Artillar aus dem englischen Bitcoin Wiki. Ich konnte bei meiner Recherche leider keinen Handelsplatz ausfindig machen, der mir historische Daten vor 2015 anzeigte (Vielleicht hast Du ja eine gute Quelle?). Ich habe nur ein Bitcoin History ... Silk Road was an anonymous online trading platform located in the zone .onion of the anonymous tor network and worked from 2011 to 2013. Most of the products was to prove to delegate, however, recently site banned pair-the sale of raw details of bank cards, about money, children's section, personal data, services of a killer and a weapon. gwern.net: Bitcoin is Worse is Better . It appears that you have not registered with Bitcoin Forum. To register, please click here... Similar topics (5) p2pfoundation.net: Why the p2pfoundation is paying its salaries in bitcoin? Started by bitcoinforum.com. Replies: 0 Views: 3710 March 29, 2012, 12:47:42 AM by bitcoinforum.com: bitcoinmagazine.net: Bitcoin Magazine Goes to Print. Started by ...

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Ben and the Queen of All! Queen of Bees Ben 10 ...

Click to watch more: http://bit.ly/37pnjv8 Ben, Gwen and Grandpa Max arrive in Bismarck, North Dakota for its annual celebration of bee pollination, bringi... Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Min gespannt was beim Interview rauskommt. Und hey, fast 18.000 Follower. Ihr seid die Besten! Was zum Völkerschlachtdenkmal: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/V... Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. 03.01.2009 - Bitcoin feiert am 03.01.2019 sein 10. Jubiläum. Einmal nachrecherchiert: Warum Bitcoin? Warum Satoshi Nakamoto? Der offizielle Name - der wie be...

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